What’s Interesting About This Concert
- Little known today, Marianna Martines was an acclaimed composer in her lifetime who influenced Mozart. Growing up, she took music lessons from a young, struggling composer who rented the attic of her family’s Vienna home. His name was Joseph Haydn.
- Haydn, later celebrated as the “Father of the Symphony,” became perhaps the most influential among Beethoven’s teachers.
- We mark #Beethoven 250 with the best known and most performed of his piano concertos. The Emperor Concerto features virtuosic trills, scales, and lots of drama, played here by soloist Adam Golka.
Marianna Martines's paternal grandfather was a Spanish soldier who had settled in Naples. Her father, Nicolo Martines, grew up there and for a time pursued a career as a soldier. He later changed careers, serving in Vienna as Maestro di Camera (major-domo) at the papal nuncio; that is, the Pope's embassy to the Austrian Empire. For service to the Empire, Marianna's brothers in 1774 acquired a patent of nobility, hence the "von" in the family surname.
In his youth in Italy, Nicolo had befriended the poet Pietro Trapassi, who wrote under the name Metastasio. The latter had risen in eminence, to the point that in 1730 he was called to Vienna to serve as the Poet Laureate of the Empire. Metastasio resided with the Martines family for the entire rest of his life (from about 1734 to 1782). His presence would prove crucial to Marianne's career.
The Martines family lived in rooms in a large building on the Michaelerplatz, "a stately building still standing in the Kohlmarkt." As was common in the days before elevators, the floors of the building corresponded to the social class of the inhabitants. On the lowest floor were the rooms of the dowager princess of the wealthy Esterházy family. The Martines family were on third floor. Another resident of the middle floors was Nicola Porpora, a well-known Italian singing teacher and composer. At the very top, in a cold and leaky attic room, lived a struggling young composer, Joseph Haydn, who was trying to make his way as a freelance musician. The lives of all of these people ultimately came to be connected, in part through Marianna Martines.
She was born into this home in 1744. Though baptized Anna Catherina, she chose to go by the name Marianna.
Metastasio, the family friend, made it a practice to help out with the raising and careers of the Martines children; for instance, at one point he helped Giuseppe obtain an important job as custodian of the Imperial Library. In the case of Marianna, he noticed her precocious talents early, and thus came to oversee her education, musical and otherwise.
He first arranged for her to take keyboard lessons from Haydn, whom Metastasio had met as a result of their living in the same building. Then, at age ten, Marianna began singing lessons with Porpora, who had also met Haydn and taken him on as his assistant; Haydn played the harpsichord while Porpora taught Marianne.
Metastasio also saw to it that Marianna received a thorough general education, which far surpassed what was considered standard for women of her social class at that time. She was a native speaker of both Italian and German, and in an autobiographical letter to Padre Martini indicated that she had good command of French. The musicologist Charles Burney, visiting Vienna, found that she also could speak English.
Career as performer and composer
Already as a child Martines was good enough to perform before the Imperial court, where according to the Helene Wessely, she "attracted attention with her beautiful voice and her keyboard playing." The adult Marianna was frequently asked to perform before the Empress Maria Theresa.
A number of the works that Martines composed are set for solo voice, and her biographers (Godt, Wessely) conjecture that the first singer of these works was their composer. If so, they constitute further evidence for her ability, as the music shows a "predilection for coloratura passages, leaps over wide intervals and trills indicat[ing] that she herself must have been an excellent singer." (Wessely).
Martines wrote a number of secular cantatas and two oratorios to Italian texts. These texts are, naturally enough, the work of her mentor Metastasio.
Surviving compositions include four masses, six motets, and three litanies for choir. She wrote in the Italian style, as was typical for the early Classical period in Vienna. Her harpsichord performance practice was compared to the style of C.P.E. Bach. Martines's compositions were well regarded in her time, and some scholars have suggested that Mozart modeled his 1768 Mass, K. 139, after the "Christe" of Martines's Mass No. 1 in D major. The Michaelerkirche (St. Michael's Church, next door to the Martines home), saw a performance of her third mass in 1761. Her fourth mass was completed in 1765.
Martines's name and music were known throughout Europe, and she was admitted to the Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna in 1773.
Her Italian oratorio Isacco figura del redentore was premiered by massive forces in concerts (17 and 19 March 1782) of the Tonkünstler-Societät, a long-standing series that also performed large-scale works by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Handel. The vocal soloists included Caterina Cavalieri, and Ludwig Fischer.
Martines and her sister, neither of whom ever married, looked after their family friend Metastasio until his death in 1782. Upon his passing, Metastasio left his estate to the Martines family; Marianna received 20,000 florins, Metastasio's harpsichord, and his music library. Marianna and her sister hosted musical soirees at their home. These weekly musical events attracted many distinguished guests, including Haydn and Irish tenor Michael Kelly. Mozart also was a frequent guest to the soirees and composed four-hand piano sonatas to perform with Marianne.
Though she was an active and highly accomplished performer and composer she never sought an appointed position; it would have been unacceptable for a woman in her social class to seek such employment.
Her last known public appearance was on March 27, 1808, attending a performance of Haydn's oratorio The Creation conducted by Salieri, in tribute to the now-elderly composer. She died on 13 December 1812 and was buried in St. Mark's Cemetery.
List of works
2 oratorios; 4 masses; 6 motets; psalm cantatas; secular cantatas; 3 keyboard sonatas, 1 keyboard concerto; and 1 symphony.
Several of her pieces have been published in recent years. The three keyboard sonatas (in E Major, G Major and A Major) are available through Hildegard Publishing. Many works are also available through Furore-Verlag, a German publisher that specializes in works by women composers. They offer many first publications, including: the Keyboard Concerto in A; Dixit Dominus for Soli, Choir and Orchestra; In Exitu Israel de Agypto, Psalm for Soli, Choir and Orchestra; Laudate Pueri Dominum, Psalm 112, for SATB choir and orchestra; the Fourth Mass.
- Marianna Martines: Psalm Cantatas. Elke Mascha Blankenburg, Koch Schwann B000001SOK, 1995. Compact disc.
- Marianna Martines: "Il primo amore". concertos and cantatas. Núria Rial, DHM 2011 Compact disc.
- on 18th Century Woman Composers. Barbara Harbach, fortepiano. Gasparo Records: B000025YJJ, 1995. Compact Disc.
- on Haydn, Martines and Auenbrugger. Monica Jakuc Leverett, fortepiano. Titanic, B000001I7X, 1993. Compact disc.
- on Woman Composers and the Men in Their Lives. Leanne Rees, Fleur de Son, B0000479BH, 2000. Compact disc.
- For discussion, including translation of the inscription at the bottom of the portrait, see blog of Michael Lorenz, .
- "Martinez" is often employed in older reference sources; however, there is no primary source in Vienna in which the name of the family is actually spelled thus. The composer always signed herself "Marianna von Martines". See: Verlassenschaftsabhandlung Maria Theresia Martines, A-Whh, OMaA, Gruppe II, 54/1775. See also the Wiener Diarium of 4 August 1773
- Godt 1995, 539
- Godt 1995, 540
- The only connection not related is that Haydn ultimately became the Kapellmeister for the Esterházy family, including the dowager's sons Paul Anton and Nicolaus.
- Godt, 540
- Godt, 541
- Wessely, New Grove, "Marianne von Martinez", online edition cited below
- Godt 1995, 538
- Pohl (1856:60)
- Godt, Irving, "Marianna in Italy: The International Reputation of Marianna Martines," The Journal of Musicology, vol. XII/4, 1995, pp. 538–561.
- Godt, Irving, "Marianna in Vienna: A Martines Chronology", The Journal of Musicology, vol. XVI/1, 1998, pp. 136–58.
- Godt, Irving (John A. Rice, ed.), Marianna Martines: A Woman Composer in the Vienna of Mozart and Haydn (Rochester, NY, University of Rochester Press, 2010) (Eastman Studies in Music).
- Harer, Ingeborg, "Martines, Marianna von", Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2004), Personenteil vol. 11, 1188-89.
- Jackson, Barbara Garvey. "Musical Women of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." In Women and Music: A History, ed. Karin Pendle, 54-94. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
- Neuls-Bates, Carol, ed. Women in Music. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996.
- Pendle, Karin. “Marianne von Martinez.” In Historical Anthology of Music by Women, ed. James Briscoe, 88-89. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
- Pohl, Carl Ferdinand (1871) Denkschrift aus Anlass des hundert-jährigen Bestehens der Tonkünstler-societät, im Jahre 1862 reorganisirt als "Haydn", Witwen und Waisen-Versorgungs-Verein der Tonkünstler in Wien. Vienna.
- Wessely, Helene. “Martinez, Marianne von,” Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 27 January 2007), <http://www.grovemusic.com>
HaydnSymphony No. 82 (Bear)
The symphony was one of a series of six symphonies commissioned in 1786 by the Concert de la Loge Olympique, a popular concert subscription in Paris (hence the name for the series as a whole). Like the other Paris symphonies, "the Bear" was written for the largest orchestral ensemble that Haydn had written for up until that time, including reinforced woodwind parts and a large string section. Despite its number, the symphony was actually the last of the six Paris symphonies to be composed. It was completed in 1786.
The work is in standard four movement form and scored for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, horns and/or trumpets, timpani, continuo (harpsichord) and strings. Early conflicting manuscript sources make the exact scoring for the brass unclear. Typically, however it is performed with both horns and trumpets.
Nickname (The Bear)
The symphony has long been popularly referred to as "the Bear". As with the nicknames of all Haydn's symphonies, it did not originate with the composer. Instead, the name derives from a recurring feature from the last movement (including its famous opening), in which Haydn intimates the tonality of a bagpipes or Dudelsack: a low sustained drone, accentuated by a grace-note on the downbeat. This curious tonality prompted an 1829 piano arrangement of the symphony to be entitled "Danse de l'Ours," the earliest known printed appearance of the nickname. This is a reference to the music used to accompany dancing bears — a popular form of street entertainment.
- W Lister, The First Performance of Haydn's ‘Paris’ Symphonies, Eighteenth-Century Music (2004), 1: 289-300
- H.C. Robbins Landon, The Symphonies of Joseph Haydn. (London: Universal Edition and Rockliff, 1955)
- Bernard Harrison, Haydn: The "Paris" Symphonies (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p101
- Emanuel Winternitz, Bagpipes and Hurdy-Gurdies in Their Social Setting, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Summer, 1943), pp. 56-83
- Bernard Harrison, Haydn: The "Paris" Symphonies (Cambridge University Press, 1998)
- H.C. Robbins Landon, The Symphonies of Joseph Haydn (Universal Edition and Rockliff, 1955)
- DP Schroeder, Haydn and the Enlightenment: the late symphonies and their audience (Oxford University Press, 1997)
BeethovenPiano Concerto No. 5 (Emperor)
The Piano Concerto No. 5 in E♭ major, Op. 73, by Ludwig van Beethoven, popularly known as the Emperor Concerto, was his last completed piano concerto. It was written between 1809 and 1811 in Vienna, and was dedicated to Archduke Rudolf, Beethoven's patron and pupil. The first performance took place on 13 January 1811 at the Palace of Prince Joseph Lobkowitz in Vienna, with Archduke Rudolf as the soloist, followed by a public concert on 28 November 1811 at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig under conductor Johann Philipp Christian Schulz, the soloist being Friedrich Schneider. On 12 February 1812, Carl Czerny, another student of Beethoven's, gave the Vienna debut of this work.
The concerto is scored for solo piano, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in B♭ (clarinet I playing in A in movement 2), two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani in E♭ and B♭, and strings. In the second movement, 2nd flute, 2nd clarinet, trumpets, and timpani are tacet.
The concerto is divided into three movements:
The first movement begins with the solo piano unfurling a series of virtuosic pronouncements punctuated by emphatic loud chords from the full orchestra. The vigorous, incessantly propulsive main theme follows, undergoing complex thematic transformation, with a secondary theme of tonic and dominant notes and chords. When the piano enters with the first theme, the expository material is repeated with variations, virtuoso figurations, and modified harmonies. The second theme enters in the unusual key of B minor before moving to B major and at last to the expected key of B♭ major several bars later.
Following the opening flourish, the movement follows Beethoven's three-theme sonata structure for a concerto. The orchestral exposition is a two-theme sonata exposition, but the second exposition with the piano introduces a triumphant, virtuosic third theme that belongs solely to the solo instrument, a trademark of Beethoven's concertos. The coda elaborates upon the open-ended first theme, building in intensity before finishing in a final climactic arrival at the tonic E♭ major.
II. Adagio un poco mosso
The second movement in B major forms a quiet nocturne for the solo piano, muted strings, and wind instruments that converse with the solo piano. The third movement begins without interruption when a lone bassoon note B drops a semitone to B♭, the dominant of the tonic key E♭. The end of the second movement was written to build directly into the third.
III. Rondo: Allegro
The final movement of the concerto is a seven-part rondo form (ABACABA). The solo piano introduces the main theme before the full orchestra affirms the soloist's statement. The rondo's B-section begins with piano scales, before the orchestra again responds. The C-section is much longer, presenting the theme from the A-section in three different keys before the piano performs a passage of arpeggios. Rather than finishing with a strong entrance from the orchestra, however, the trill ending the cadenza dies away until the introductory theme reappears, played first by the piano and then the orchestra. In the last section, the theme undergoes variation before the concerto ends with a short cadenza and robust orchestral response.
- During the acoustic era, in September 1912 Frank La Forge recorded the adagio movement with an unnamed orchestra; the recording was issued as Victor 55030-A.
- In January 1927 Wilhelm Backhaus recorded the Emperor Concerto with the Royal Albert Hall Orchestra under Landon Ronald. Backhaus would make stereo recordings of all five concertos with Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt and Vienna Philharmonic in the late 1950s.
- In March 1927 Ignaz Friedman recorded the Emperor Concerto with the New Queen's Hall Orchestra under Henry Wood, but this recording no longer exists.
- In the early 1930s Artur Schnabel recorded all five Beethoven concertos under Sir Malcolm Sargent and the London Symphony Orchestra.
- Edwin Fischer recorded it with Karl Böhm in 1939 and Wilhelm Furtwängler in 1951.
- Josef Hofmann recorded it with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Hans Lange on May 12, 1940.
- Arthur Rubinstein recorded it three times, with Josef Krips, Erich Leinsdorf, and Daniel Barenboim.
- Walter Gieseking and Artur Rother made a stereophonic tape recording in 1944 or 1945 for German radio. It was one of the very earliest high-fidelity magnetic tape recordings, as well as one of the earliest stereo recordings, and was one of about 300 such recordings made during the war. However, only three are known to survive. During the quiet passages, anti-aircraft weapons can be heard firing.
- Vladimir Horowitz recorded it in a 1952 live performance at Carnegie Hall with Fritz Reiner and the RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra.
- Wilhelm Kempff recorded it with Paul van Kempen in 1953 and with Ferdinand Leitner in 1961.
- Rudolf Serkin recorded it four times: in 1941 with Bruno Walter and the New York Philharmonic; in 1953 with Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra; in 1962 with Leonard Bernstein conducting the New York Philharmonic, and in 1981 with the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Seiji Ozawa.
- Bernstein recorded a live performance of the concerto in September 1989, shortly before his death, with Krystian Zimerman and the Vienna Philharmonic. The performance was filmed and released on DVD.
- Leon Fleisher recorded all the Beethoven piano concertos with George Szell and the Cleveland Orchestra from 1959 until 1961.
- Daniel Barenboim recorded all five piano concertos and the Choral Fantasia with [[Otto Klemperer and the [[New Philharmonia Orchestra in 1968
- Vladimir Ashkenazy recorded all the Beethoven piano concertos three times: in 1971-1972 with Georg Solti and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, in 1983 with Zubin Mehta and the Vienna Philharmonic, and in 1986-1987 with himself conducting the Cleveland Orchestra.
- Claudio Arrau recorded it four times: with Alceo Galliera in 1958, Bernard Haitink in 1964 and twice with Sir Colin Davis, first with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and later with the Staatskapelle Dresden.
- Glenn Gould recorded this concerto with Leopold Stokowski (the only recording the two ever made together) using somewhat non-traditional phrasings and tempi, as was typical of Gould's interpretations. Gould also recorded it with Karel Ančerl.
- Maurizio Pollini recorded the five piano concertos twice for Deutsche Grammophon. First with Karl Böhm and Eugen Jochum (in the first two concertos) and the Vienna Philharmonic and later with Claudio Abbado and the Berlin Philharmonic.
- Alfred Brendel recorded all Beethoven's piano concertos at least three times over his career.
- Friedrich Gulda recorded all Beethoven's piano concertos with Horst Stein and the Vienna Philharmonic between 1971 and 1973.
- Paul Lewis recorded all five of Beethoven's piano concertos with the BBC Symphony Orchestra with conductor Jiří Bělohlávek.
- Murray Perahia recorded all five of Beethoven's piano concertos with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra with conductor Bernard Haitink, 1988.
- Richard Goode recorded the five Beethoven concertos with the Budapest Festival Orchestra conducted by Iván Fischer in 2005.
- Hélène Grimaud recorded a live performance in December, 2006 with Wladimir Jurowski and the Staatskapelle Dresden.
- In 2012, the Norwegian pianist Leif Ove Andsnes recorded all five of Beethoven's piano concertos in the album "the Beethoven Journey", with the Mahler Chamber Orchestra
- The original autograph (page 74r) has Adagio un poco moto ("Adagio with a little motion"), not mosso.
- "Sketchleaf". www.sothebys.com.
- Michael Steinberg: The Concerto: A Listener's Guide. Retrieved 4 August 2014
- San Francisco Symphony. Retrieved 4 August 2014 Archived 11 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Stevenson, Joseph. Johann Baptist Cramer at AllMusic. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- McCarthy, James (12 July 2012). "Beethoven's Complete Piano Concertos". www.gramophone.co.uk. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- The album on spotify
- Piano Concerto No. 5: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Gutmann, Peter (2017). "Beethoven: Piano Concerto # 5 in E-Flat Major, Op. 73 ('Emperor')". Classical Notes.
- Original autograph, 1809, Berlin State Library
- Beethoven's Fifth Piano Concerto Analysis and description of Beethoven's Fifth Emperor Piano Concerto
- BBC Discovering Music – analysis (RealAudio, 29 minutes)
Adam Golka, piano