What’s Interesting About This Concert
This is the first of four FREE virtual concerts in fall 2020, spotlighting fresh performances by featured soloists and California Symphony ensembles. Join 30 minutes ahead of the concert at 6:30 pm PST to hear Maestro Cabrera in conversation with guest artist Adam Golka.
- This all-Beethoven program with Beethoven specialist Adam Golka celebrates the composer’s 250th birthday, pairing one of Beethoven’s last piano sonatas (#30) with one of his most technically challenging, Waldstein (#21).
- Before Beethoven, sonatas used to be trivial pieces played in salons and small performance. His 32 sonatas became the first major piano-only cycle worthy of being performed on a concert stage.
This concert is made possible by California Symphony donors, with additional support from a CARES Act grant from the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA).
BeethovenSonata No. 30, Opus 109
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30 in E major, Op. 109, composed in 1820, is the antepenultimate of his piano sonatas. In it, after the huge Hammerklavier Sonata, Op. 106, Beethoven returns to a smaller scale and a more intimate character. It is dedicated to Maximiliane Brentano, the daughter of Beethoven's long-standing friend Antonie Brentano, for whom Beethoven had already composed the short Piano Trio in B♭ major WoO 39 in 1812. Musically, the work is characterised by a free and original approach to the traditional sonata form. Its focus is the third movement, a set of variations that interpret its theme in a wide variety of individual ways.
Work on Op. 109 can be traced back to early in 1820, even before Beethoven's negotiations with Adolf Schlesinger, the publisher of his last three sonatas. Recent research suggests that had asked Beethoven for a composition for his piano anthology The Vienna Pianoforte School, and that Beethoven had interrupted work on the Missa Solemnis. In the end, though, he offered Starke numbers 7–11 of the Bagatelles, Op. 119.
There is an April entry in Beethoven's conversation book describing a "small new piece" that is, according to William Meredith, identical to the first movement of Op. 109. In fact, the outline of the movement makes the idea of a Bagatelle interrupted by fantasia-like interludes seem very plausible. Beethoven's secretary Franz Oliva then allegedly suggested the idea of using this "small piece" as the beginning of the sonata that Schlesinger wanted. Sieghard Brandenburg has put forward the theory that Beethoven had originally planned a two-movement sonata, omitting the first movement. Apparently some of the motivic characteristics that link the first movement with the others were only introduced later. Alexander Wheelock Thayer, on the other hand, put forward the view that the beginning of a sonata in E minor by Beethoven was not developed further and had nothing to do with Op. 109.
For the third movement, Beethoven first sketched a set of about six variations, then a set of nine, and finally a continuity draft for a set of six. The differences in character between the individual variations seem to be smaller in the nine-variation version than in the final printed edition,:226 but according to Kay Dreyfus this already indicates a "process of exploration and re-discovery of the theme".:194
It has not been conclusively established whether Beethoven completed the sonata in the autumn of 1820 or only in 1821. In letters to his publisher in 1820, he was already speaking of "Fertigstellung" (completion); but it is unclear whether Beethoven meant completed concepts, drafts or a fair copy that could be dispatched. The first edition was published by Schlesinger in Berlin in November 1821. It contained many errors, since Beethoven was prevented by illness from undertaking adequate proof-reading. The sonata is dedicated to Maximiliane Brentano, the musically gifted daughter of Franz and Antonie Brentano.
The date of the first performance is unknown. The first pianists to undertake to bring Beethoven's last sonatas, including Op. 109, to public attention were Franz Liszt, who regularly included them in his programs between 1830 and 1840, and Hans von Bülow, who even included several of the late sonatas in one evening.
With regard to Beethoven's late work, and especially to his late piano sonatas, Op. 109 is particularly noteworthy for its divergence from the norms of sonata form and for its harmonic and structural innovations.
Beethoven's last sonatas
Opus 109 is one of Beethoven's last three, five or six sonatas that are counted among his late works. The different cut-off points arise from the fact that the sonatas from Opus 90 on are varied and contradictory in form and in their predominant musical tendencies. The pianistic means are reduced to leaner, chamber music-like voice leading, as in the first movement of Opus 110, or dissolved into recitative-like passages, as in the third movement of the same work. These procedures contrast with a heightened virtuosity, a broadening of the form and an increase in overall length, as for example in the Hammerklavier sonata, Op. 106. In Op. 109, reminiscences of the straightforward style of the early, Haydn-influenced sonatas contrast with harmony that is sometimes harsh, anticipating the music of the 20th century.:169 This gives special importance to the principles of polyphonic variation, as in the second movement of Op. 109, and consequently the use of baroque forms, especially fugue and fugato. Very wide intervals between the outer voices, a process of breaking the music into ever shorter note values (as in the sixth variation in Op. 109), use of trills to resolve the music into layers of sound (the same variation in Op. 109 and again in Op. 111), arpeggios, ostinati and tremolos gain increased significance.:138
This sonata seduces the listener with its intimate, less dramatic character and distinguishes itself by its special lyricism, "melodic and harmonic beauties" and ornaments and arabesques hinting at Chopin.:192 In this sonata, as in many of Beethoven's late works, one interval is significant throughout. Here it is the interval of a third.:140 It shares with other late Beethoven sonatas the shift of focus to the last movement, the dissolution into "pure sound" and the references to old baroque forms.:14–15 Some similarities to the opening of the Sonata in A, Op.101 have been noted.:401
Throughout the history of music there has been much philosophy and speculation about the character of the individual keys. In Beethoven, E major (frequently described as bright and radiant) and E minor (sad, lamenting) often appear together, as in Op. 14 No. 1, the second Razumovsky quartet and Op. 90. The combination has been said to mitigate both the light and the dark aspects of the music.:401
Differences from the standard model
Opus 109 differs from the "standard model" in several ways. Although written in three movements, it feels more like "two balanced movements",:163 since the first movement is linked to the scherzo-like Prestissimo by holding down the pedal. The internal form of the first movement is based less on elaboration than on the contrasting juxtaposition of fast and slow, loud and soft, and major and minor. Hence the second movement takes on even more of the function usually assigned to the first movement, which would be in sonata-allegro form. Then the third movement is – most unusually for a sonata – a theme and variations. Thus the theme in the third movement takes on the role of the slow movement, which is usually the second movement in the standard model. Although the sonata is formally in three movements, many leading musicians and recordings make it sound like two movements by going into the second movement without a pause and then clearly separating the third movement. However, musicologists Jürgen Uhde, , and Carl Dahlhaus divide the work into three movements in their detailed analyses.
The three movements of this sonata are:
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The first movement reflects the strong interest that Beethoven developed during this period in structures in which contrasting sections are included parenthetically. The same tendency is manifest in the Missa Solemnis, composed at almost the same time, and in the piano sonatas following this one.:163 A quiet, lyrical, rapid Vivace first theme is contrasted, after only eight bars, with a forte and Adagio second theme full of arpeggios. Even from a purely harmonic point of view, the contrast between the clear major in the first part and the extremely tense diminished seventh chords in the second could hardly be more obvious.
Bar 8 does not complete the cadence in the dominant (B major) that was conventional when progressing to the second subject in sonata-allegro form. Bars 9–15 continue to avoid the cadence, which only appears in bar 15. Charles Rosen and others analyse the first movement as being in sonata form, in which the two opening sections form the first and second subjects, and bars 66 to the end as a coda.
Richard Rosenberg confirms the three-part structure of sonata form, but cannot identify any thematic duality within the exposition. Rather, he sees a correspondence between the upper voices of the Vivace and the Adagio together with the bass of the Vivace on the one hand (E–D♯–C♯–B–A–G♯–B–E) and the middle voice in the left hand of the Adagio on the other (D♯–E–F♯–G♯–A–C♯–D♯–E).:402–403
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The stormy Prestissimo in E minor has been described as one of Beethoven's most tuneful Prestissimo movements.:195
This movement is also in sonata form, although the usual contrast between the first subject (E minor) and the second subject (B minor) is completely absent here because of the nature of the thematic material.
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This movement consists of a theme with six variations of differing character and piano technique.
The movement opens with a 16-bar theme. The dotted notes emphasise the second beat of the bar, giving this song-like theme something of the character of a Sarabande. Its "dignified, meditative feel is strengthened by emphasis on the tonic E",:166 which is reached through the falling third in bars 1 and 3, and later through other, wider intervals such as the falling fifth in bar 5 and the rising minor sixth in bar 7. Bars 1–2 are present in various shapes throughout the first eight bars. Bars 1–2 and 5–6 are based on a common thematic shape: G♯–E–D♯–B; bars 3–4 and 7–8 are based similarly on G♯–E–F♯–A♯–B.:467
This variation keeps the tempo of the theme. Compared with the quartet-like theme, it is more pianistic.:491 The melody is an octave higher, thereby becoming more emotional. It is formed like a "ceremonial waltz".:140 With its accompanying formulae in the left hand, its ornamentation and its nuanced dynamics, it calls to mind many later compositions, such as bars 16–20 of Chopin's Waltz in A minor Op. 34, No. 2.:409–410 or Debussy's Prelude Danseuses de Delphe.:490
This variation is marked leggiermente. Whereas the theme and first variation were a binary phrase structure, here we have three variations collated and presented as one. The first texture is a call and response which strongly recalls the beginning of the first movement. The second is a two-voice canon in the right hand over a steady quaver accompaniment. The two textures are then combined to form a third, with alternating semiquavers between the left and right hands as in the beginning, with a steady quaver chordal pulse as in the second part. This pattern is then repeated for the second half of the theme.
Variation 3 (Allegro vivace)
This variation breaks away from the original tempo and is marked Allegro vivace. It replaces the theme's 3
4 time signature with 2
4. It is a virtuosic Allegro in a two-part contrapuntal texture reminiscent of a two-part invention. This is the only variation in this movement to end on forte.
This variation is a little slower than the theme ("Etwas langsamer, als das thema. Un poco meno andante ciò è un poco più adagio come il tema."). It is in 9
8 time. The first half (repeated) is a contrapuntal texture varying between two and four voices. In the second half, between zero and two voices continue in the same vein over an accompaniment of broken chords.
Variation 5 (Allegro ma non troppo)
After variation 4, Beethoven abandons numbering the variations and just provides tempo indications at the head of the remaining ones. The reasons are unknown. In spite of this, it is usual to refer to the remaining variations as numbers 5 and 6.
The Schenker edition gives three different bar numberings for this variation, two of which imply the omission of some of the bars. Neither preface identifies the sources leading to these numberings.
Variation 6 (Tempo primo del tema)
In extreme contrast to the energy and speed of the previous variation, this one begins with a four-bar passage marked cantabile, in quiet, slow crotchets at the tempo of the theme. Its peaceful, static character is emphasised by the repeated B in the top voice. As the sonata progresses to its conclusion, Beethoven intensifies almost every musical parameter to the maximum. Note values intensify the rhythm by decreasing from crotchets through quavers, triplet quavers and semiquavers to demisemiquavers. Contrast of register is increased by alternating very prominent high notes and deep bass notes. From bar 12, long drawn-out trills in both hands and from bar 17, raging arpeggios and sequences in the top voice build further towards a climax.:138–139 Then the last sixteen bars repeat the simple theme – just as if nothing had happened – and it fades away quietly.
The work as a whole
Already in the first two movements, many musicologists see motifs, scale passages, rhythmic models and characteristic idioms that reach their full potential only in the third movement. Jürgen Uhde does not consider the first two movements to be completely self-sufficient constructions in their own right. Rather, often in concealed ways, they already foreshadow the theme of the third movement as the goal of the whole sonata.:465, 471 Richard Rosenberg, in his "reductions", concentrates more on the commonalities among the bass and middle voices of the movements. Starting with the first eight bars of the first movement, he reduces the bass progressions of each movement to a fundamental model of a stepwise descent followed by an ascent in leaps.:404–407
This approach recalls Heinrich Schenker's determination of an Ursatz through his technique of reductive analysis. Uhde and others often point out the danger of too much interpretative license indicating parallels between passages that are scarcely related.:126
- Kerman, Joseph; Tyson, Alan (Aug 1983). The New Grove Beethoven. W W Norton & Co Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-30091-8.
- Kinderman, William (1995). Beethoven. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-520-08796-8.
- Meredith, William (Dec 1985). "The Origins of Beethoven's Op. 109". The Musical Times. 126 (1714): 713–716. JSTOR 965193.
- Barry Cooper: Beethoven. pp. 279–280. Cited by www.raptusassociation.org
- Sieghard Brandenburg: Die Skizzen zur neunten Symphonie, p. 105.
- Alexander Wheelock Thayer, cited in www.raptusassociation.org
- Marston, Nicholas (1995). "Chapter 8: Plans for a Variation Set". Beethoven's Piano Sonata in E, Op. 109. Clarendon Press. pp. 184–217. ISBN 978-0-19-315332-5. See especially pp. 210–211.
- Zilkens, Udo (1994). Beethovens Finalsätze in den Klaviersonaten. Tonger Musikverlag. ISBN 3-920950-03-8.
- Dreyfus, Kay (1971). Beethoven's last five piano sonatas : a study in analytical method. Melbourne: Thesis (D.Mus.)--University of Melbourne, Dept. of Music.
- "Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30 Op. 109: Creation History and Discussion of Musical Content". Raptus Association for Music Appreciation. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
- Mauser, Siegfried (2001). Beethovens Klaviersonaten – Ein musikalischer Werkführer. München: Verlag C.H.Beck. ISBN 3-406-41873-2.
- Uhde, Jürgen (2000). Beethovens Klaviersonaten 16–32. Ditzingen: Reclam. ISBN 978-3-15-010151-3.
- Zilkens, op. cit. pp. 128, 130, 230
- Badura-Skoda, Paul; Demus, Jörg (1970). Die Klaviersonaten von Ludwig van Beethoven. Wiesbaden: F. A. Brockhaus. ISBN 3-7653-0118-3.
- Rosenberg, Richard (1954). Die Klaviersonaten Ludwig van Beethovens. vol. 2. Olten & Lausanne: Urs Graf Verlag.
- Kühn, Clemens (1998). Formenlehre der Musik. Bärenreiter. p. 206. ISBN 978-3-7618-1392-8.
- Arnold Werner-Jensen: Reclams Musikführer Ludwig van Beethoven, Reclam, 1998, p. 92. ISBN 3-15-010441-6
- Dinslage, Patrick (1987). Studien zum Verhältnis von Harmonik, Metrik und Form in den Klaviersonaten Ludwig van Beethovens. E. Katzbichler. pp. 85ff. ISBN 978-3-87397-073-1.
- Rosen, Charles (1988). Sonata Forms. WW Norton & Co. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-393-30219-6.
- Alfred Brendel: Der späte Stil. In: Nachdenken über Musik. München 1982, p. 82
- Hugo Riemann, cited in Richard Rosenberg: op. cit. pp. 408–409
- Dahlhaus, Carl; Ringer, Alexander L.; Riethmüller, Albrecht (1994). Beethoven – Interpretationen seiner Werke. 2. Verlag Laaber. ISBN 3-89007-304-2.
- Heinrich Schenker (ed.) translated with new preface by Carl Schachter (1975): Ludwig van Beethoven: Complete Piano Sonatas, vol. 2, Dover Publications Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-23135-6, pp. 570–571
- Dahlhaus, Carl (1993). Ludwig van Beethoven und seine Zeit. Laaber.
- Blom, Eric (1968). Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonatas Discussed. New York: Da Capo Press.
- Reti, Rudolph (1992). Thematic Patterns in the Sonatas of Beethoven. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-79714-9.
- Tovey, Donald Francis (2004). A Companion to Beethoven’s Pianoforte Sonatas – Complete Analyses (Revised edition). ABRSM Publishing. ISBN 1-86096-086-3.
- A lecture by András Schiff on Beethoven's piano sonata Op. 109
- Piano Sonata No. 30, Op. 109: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Alfred Brendel: Notes on a Complete Recording of Beethoven's Piano Works
- Manuscript of Op. 109 at the Library of Congress. (Note: although the title of this web page and Beethoven's own title page read "Sonate für das Hammerklavier", it is Op. 109.)
- Recording by Paavali Jumppanen, piano from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
BeethovenSonata No. 21, Opus 53 (Waldstein)
Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 21 in C major, Op. 53, known as the Waldstein, is one of the three most notable sonatas of his middle period (the other two being the Appassionata, Op. 57, and Les Adieux, Op. 81a). Completed in summer 1804 and surpassing Beethoven's previous piano sonatas in its scope, the Waldstein is a key early work of Beethoven's "Heroic" decade (1803–1812) and set a standard for piano composition in the grand manner.
The sonata's name derives from Beethoven's dedication to his close friend and patron Count Ferdinand Ernst Gabriel von Waldstein of Vienna. Like the Archduke Trio (one of many pieces dedicated to Archduke Rudolph), it is named for Waldstein even though other works are dedicated to him. It is also known as L'Aurora (The Dawn) in Italian, for the sonority of the opening chords of the third movement, thought to conjure an image of daybreak.
It is considered one of Beethoven's greatest and most technically challenging piano sonatas. The first section of the rondo requires a simultaneous pedal trill, high melody and rapid left hand runs while its coda's glissando octaves, written in dialogue between the hands, compel even advanced performers to play in a simplified version since it is more demanding to play on the heavier action of a modern piano than on an early 19th-century instrument.
An average performance of the entire Waldstein lasts about twenty-five minutes.
The Waldstein has three movements:
The first and last movements of the sonata are the most substantial, each taking about 11 minutes to perform.
I. Allegro con brio
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It then swiftly ascends, followed by a three-note descent in the middle register and a four-note descent in the upper. This phrase is then repeated starting on B♭ major – a whole tone lower – a device Beethoven also used for the opening of the Sonata No. 16 in G Major (Op. 31 No. 1). After a half cadence to the dominant (G major), the opening phrase returns again but this time in a tremolo variation. The second subject group, marked dolce, is a chordal theme in E major, the mediant key. Modulation to the mediant for the second subject area is another feature shared by this sonata and the Sonata No. 16. Beethoven would employ the same shift again in later works (in the Hammerklavier Sonata, for example).
II. Introduzione. Adagio molto
The Introduzione is a short Adagio in 6
8 time that serves as an introduction to the third movement. This replaced an earlier, longer middle movement, later published as the Andante favori, WoO 57. The music gradually gets more agitated before calming down to segue into the rondo.
III. Rondo. Allegretto moderato – Prestissimo
The rondo begins with a pianissimo melody played with crossed hands that soon returns fortissimo, over daringly fast scales in the left hand and a continuous trill on the dominant in the right, as described above. The second theme, a series of broken chords in triplets, is soon interrupted by a turbulent section in A minor that foreshadows the central episode.
The music returns to C major and the sweet theme is repeated, followed by a series of staccato octaves in C minor that mark the start of the central episode, one of the few cases where such a melodic change is seen, a tactic repeated in larger works like the Emperor Piano Concerto. Soon the octaves are accompanied by swirling triplets in the left and then the right hand. The music grows more tense and eventually reaches a cadence in C minor. The next section brings back the opening theme in chords and further develops it: it appears in A♭ major (bars 221–224), then F minor (225–228) and then D♭ major (229–232); it is fragmented into shorter phrases (233–238) and then transits into a quiet section with major 7th arpeggios, returning after much drama to the C major theme played fortissimo.
The second theme reappears, followed by another characteristic long line of beautiful dance-like music. Another series of fortissimo chords announces a short, delicate pianissimo section: the movement seems to die away but then unexpectedly segues into a virtuosic prestissimo coda that plays with the various themes of the movement, ending in a triumphant rush of grandeur.
- Piano Sonata No. 21: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Lecture with clips of performance by András Schiff and why he thinks it is "one of the greatest pieces of music there is".
- on YouTube, by Mikhail Pletnev, with score
- Recording by Paavali Jumppanen, piano from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
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