Hidden Treasures

The Lesher Center for the Arts

1 hour and 50 minutes, with intermission

What’s Interesting About This Concert

  • Waste not, want not: The rarely performed Overture, Scherzo and Finale was originally going to be Schumann’s second symphony but he repurposed the material to create this piece instead.
  • Price was the first African American woman to achieve national recognition as a symphonic composer. After her death, she quickly faded into obscurity until dozens of her works—including this violin concerto—were recently discovered in Price’s dilapidated  former summer house.
  • Orchestras regularly program Vaughan Williams’ shorter works (and audiences love them), but it’s rare to hear his symphonies performed in the United States. The achingly beautiful, soul-soothing Symphony No.5 conjures images of pastoral scenes and idyllic, English country landscapes.

The Program

SchumannOverture, Scherzo, and Finale

The Overture, Scherzo and Finale (German: Ouverture, Scherzo und Finale) in E major is a work for symphony orchestra by Robert Schumann. It is his opus 52, and was written in 1841. Schumann originally considered it his second symphony.[1]

The work is in three movements:

  • An overture (Andante con moto in E minor[2] - Allegro in E major and 2:2 time [3]) (sketched and completed in April 1841)[1]
  • A scherzo (Tempo: Vivo), in 6:8 time and in C minor,[4] whose theme is based on that of the overture.[1] It has a trio section in D major, in contrasting 2:4 time[5] whose material reappears as the coda of the movement.[6]
  • Finale (Allegro molto vivace)[2] (orchestrated around May 1841)[1]

The Overture, Scherzo and Finale was received tepidly by critics,[1] was revised in 1845[2] and published the next year,[2] with a dedication to Johannes Verhulst.

Recordings

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Daverio, John (1997). Robert Schumann: Herald of a "new Poetic Age" at Google Books. Oxford University Press U.S. Pages 235-6. ISBN 0-19-509180-9.
  2. ^ a b c d Ferguson, Donald N. (1968). Masterworks of the Orchestral Repertoire: A Guide for Listeners at Google Books. U. of Minnesota Press. Page 518. ISBN 0-8166-0467-3.
  3. ^ See score, bar 18 - pages 2-3 of the piano 4-hands arrangement.
  4. ^ Pages 16-7 of the piano 4-hands arrangement, for example.
  5. ^ starting middle of bar 55, to bar 71 - pages 18-9 of the piano 4-hands arrangement.
  6. ^ starting at bar 137 - pages 24-5 of the piano 4-hands arrangement.
  7. ^ Discographical data from 'Collingwood' search in The CHARM Discography, Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music, <http://www.charm.kcl.ac.uk/about/about_structure Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine>, accessed 12 January 2015.

External links

Read more on Wikipedia.org

PriceViolin Concerto No. 2

Florence Beatrice Price (née Smith; April 9, 1887 – June 3, 1953) was an African-American classical composer, pianist, organist and music teacher. Price is noted as the first African-American woman to be recognized as a symphonic composer, and the first to have a composition played by a major orchestra.[2]

Biography

Early Life

She was born as Florence Beatrice Smith to Florence (Gulliver) and James H. Smith on April 9, 1887, in Little Rock, Arkansas,[3] one of three children in a mixed-race family. Despite racial issues of the era, her family was well respected and did well within their community. Her father was a dentist and her mother was a music teacher who guided Florence's early musical training.[4] She had her first piano performance at the age of four and had her first composition published at the age of 11.[2]

By the time she was 14, Florence had graduated as valedictorian of her class. After high school, she later enrolled in the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts with a major in piano and organ. Initially, she identified as Mexican to avoid the prejudice people had toward African Americans at the time. At the Conservatory, she studied composition and counterpoint with composers George Chadwick and Frederick Converse.[2] Also while there, Smith wrote her first string trio and symphony. She graduated in 1906 with honors, and with both an artist diploma in organ and a teaching certificate.[5]

Career

Smith returned to Arkansas, where she taught briefly before moving to Atlanta, Georgia, in 1910. There she became the head of the music department of what is now Clark Atlanta University, a historically black college. In 1912, she married Thomas J. Price, a lawyer. She moved back to Little Rock, Arkansas, where he had his practice.[4] After a series of racial incidents in Little Rock, particularly a lynching of a black man in 1927, the Price family decided to leave. Like many black families living in the Deep South, they moved north in the Great Migration to escape Jim Crow conditions, and settled in Chicago, a major industrial city.

There Florence Price began a new and fulfilling period in her composition career. She studied composition, orchestration, and organ with the leading teachers in the city, including Arthur Olaf Andersen, Carl Busch, Wesley La Violette, and Leo Sowerby. She published four pieces for piano in 1928. While in Chicago, Price was at various times enrolled at the Chicago Musical College, Chicago Teacher’s College, University of Chicago, and American Conservatory of Music, studying languages and liberal arts subjects as well as music. Financial struggles and abuse by her husband resulted in Price getting a divorce in 1931. She became a single mother to her two daughters. To make ends meet, she worked as an organist for silent film screenings and composed songs for radio ads under a pen name. During this time, Price lived with friends. She eventually moved in with her student and friend, Margaret Bonds, also a black pianist and composer. This friendship connected Price with writer Langston Hughes and contralto Marian Anderson, both prominent figures in the art world who aided in Price's future success as a composer.

Together, Price and Bonds began to achieve national recognition for their compositions and performances. In 1932, both Price and Bonds submitted compositions for the Wanamaker Foundation Awards. Price won first prize with her Symphony in E minor, and third for her Piano Sonata, earning her a $500 prize.[6] (Bonds came in first place in the song category, with a song entitled "Sea Ghost.") The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Frederick Stock, premiered the Symphony on June 15, 1933, making Price’s piece the first composition by an African-American woman to be played by a major orchestra.[6][7][8][9]

A number of Price's other orchestral works were played by the WPA Symphony Orchestra of Detroit, the Chicago Women’s Symphony,[4] and the Women's Symphony Orchestra of Chicago.[10] Price wrote other extended works for orchestra, chamber works, art songs, works for violin, organ anthems, piano pieces, spiritual arrangements, four symphonies, three piano concertos, and a violin concerto. Some of her more popular works are: "Three Little Negro Dances," "Songs to a Dark Virgin", "My Soul's Been Anchored in the Lord" for piano or orchestra and voice, and "Moon Bridge". Price made considerable use of characteristic African-American melodies and rhythms in many of her works. Her Concert Overture on Negro Spirituals, Symphony in E minor, and Negro Folksongs in Counterpoint for string quartet, all serve as excellent examples of her idiomatic work. Price was inducted into the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers in 1940 for her work as a composer. In 1949, Price published two of her spiritual arrangements, "I Am Bound for the Kingdom," and "I'm Workin’ on My Buildin'", and dedicated them to Marian Anderson, who performed them on a regular basis.

Personal life and death

In 1912, Price married attorney Thomas J. Price[1][citation needed] upon returning to Arkansas from Atlanta. Together, they had two daughters and a son; Florence (d. 1975[11]), Edith and Thomas Jr.[11] The Price children were raised in Chicago. Florence Price divorced Thomas Price in January 1931, and on February 14, 1931, she married the widower Pusey Dell Arnett (1875-1957), an insurance agent and former baseball player for the Chicago Unions some thirteen years her senior. She and Arnett were separated by April 1934; they apparently never divorced.[12] On June 3, 1953, Price died from a stroke in Chicago, Illinois, at age 66.

Rediscovery of manuscripts

Following her death, much of her work was overshadowed as new musical styles emerged that fit the changing tastes of modern society. Some of her work was lost, but as more African-American and female composers have gained attention for their works, so has Price. In 2001, the Women's Philharmonic created an album of some of her work. Pianist Karen Walwyn and The New Black Repertory Ensemble performed Price's Concerto in One Movement and Symphony in E minor in December 2011.[13][14]

In 2009, a substantial collection of her works and papers were found in an abandoned dilapidated house on the outskirts of St. Anne, Illinois.[15] These consisted of dozens of her scores, including her two violin concertos and her fourth symphony. As Alex Ross stated in The New Yorker in February 2018, "not only did Price fail to enter the canon; a large quantity of her music came perilously close to obliteration. That run-down house in St. Anne is a potent symbol of how a country can forget its cultural history."[16]

In November 2018, the New York-based firm of G. Schirmer announced that it had acquired the exclusive worldwide rights to Florence Price's complete catalog.[17][18]

Composition style

Even though her training was steeped in European tradition, Price's music consists of mostly the American idiom and reveals her Southern roots.[4] She wrote with a vernacular style, using sounds and ideas that fit the reality of urban society. Being deeply religious, she frequently used the music of the African-American church as material for her arrangements. At the urging of her mentor George Whitefield Chadwick,[19] Price began to incorporate elements of African-American spirituals, emphasizing the rhythm and syncopation of the spirituals rather than just using the text. Her melodies were blues-inspired and mixed with more traditional, European Romantic techniques. The weaving of tradition and modernism reflected the way life was for African Americans in large cities at the time.

Legacy and honors

Price Elementary School, Chicago.

In 1964, the Chicago Public Schools opened Florence B. Price Elementary School (also known Price Lit & Writing Elementary School) at 4351 South Drexel Boulevard in the North Kenwood neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois in her honor.[20] Price student body was predominately African-American. The school operated from 1964 until the school district decided to phase it out in 2011 due to poor academic performance which ultimately led to its closing in 2013. The school housed a piano owned by Price. The school building currently houses a local church as of 2019.[21] In February 2019, The University of Arkansas Honors College held a concert honoring Price.[22][23] In October 2019, the International Florence Price Festival announced that its inaugural gathering celebrating Price's music and legacy would take place at the University of Maryland School of Music in August 2020.[24][25]

Works

Symphonies

Concertos

  • Piano Concerto in D minor (1932–34); often referred to as Piano Concerto in One Movement although the work is in three separate movements
  • Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major (1939)
  • Violin Concerto No. 2 in D minor (1952)
  • Rhapsody/Fantasie for piano and orchestra (date unknown, possibly incomplete)

Other orchestral works

  • Ethiopia's Shadow in America (1929–32)[26]
  • Mississippi River Suite (1934); although labelled as a "suite", the work is cast in one continuous large-scale movement, in which several famous Mississippi River Songs are quoted, such as “Get Down, Moses”, “Nobody Knows the Trouble I’ve Seen” and "Deep River".
  • Chicago Suite (date unknown)
  • Colonial Dance Symphony (date unknown)
  • Concert Overture No. 1 (date unknown); based on the spiritual "Sinner, Please Don’t Let This Harvest Pass"[27]
  • Concert Overture No. 2 (1943); based on three spirituals ("Go Down Moses", "Ev'ry Time I Feel the Spirit", "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen")[28]
  • The Oak, tone poem (1943); sometimes referred to as Songs of the Oak
  • Suite of Negro Dances (performed in 1951;[29] orchestral version of the Three Little Negro Dances for piano, 1933;[30]); also referred to as Suite of Dances
  • Dances in the Canebrakes (orchestral version of the homonymous piano work, 1953)

Choral

  • "The Moon Bridge" (M. R. Gamble), SSA, 1930;
  • "The New Moon", SSAA, 2 pf, 1930;
  • "The Wind and the Sea" (P. L. Dunbar), SSAATTBB, pf, str qt, 1934;
  • "Night" (Bessie Mayle), SSA, pf (1945)[31]
  • "Witch of the Meadow" (Gamble), SSA (1947);
  • "Sea Gulls", female chorus, fl, cl, vn, va, vc, pf, by 1951;
  • "Nature's Magic" (Gamble), SSA (1953);
  • "Song for Snow" (E. Coatsworth), SATB (1957);
  • "Abraham Lincoln walks at midnight" (V. Lindsay), mixed vv, orch, org;
  • "After the 1st and 6th Commandments", SATB;
  • "Communion Service", F, SATB, org;
  • "Nod" (W. de la Mare), TTBB;
  • Resignation (Price), SATB;
  • "Song of Hope" (Price);
  • "Spring Journey", SSA, str qt

Solo vocal (all with piano)

  • "Don't You Tell Me No" (Price) (between 1931 and 1934)[32][33]
  • "Dreamin' Town" (Dunbar), 1934;
  • 4 Songs, B-Bar, 1935;
  • "My Dream" (Hughes), 1935;
  • "Dawn's Awakening" (J. J. Burke), 1936;
  • "Songs to the Dark Virgin" (L. Hughes), (1941);
  • "Hold Fast to Dreams" (Hughes), 1945;
  • "Night" (L. C. Wallace), (1946);
  • "Out of the South Blew a Wind" (F.C. Woods), (1946);
  • "An April Day" (J. F. Cotter), (1949);
  • "The Envious Wren" (A. and P. Carey);
  • "Fantasy in Purple" (Hughes);
  • "Feet o' Jesus" (Hughes);
  • "Forever" (Dunbar);
  • "The Glory of the Day was in her Face" (J. W. Johnson);
  • "The Heart of a Woman" (G. D. Johnson)[34];
  • "Love-in-a-Mist" (Gamble);
  • "Nightfall" (Dunbar); "Resignation" (Price), also arr. chorus;
  • "Song of the Open Road; Sympathy" (Dunbar);
  • "To my Little Son" (J. J. Davis);
  • "Travel's End" (M. F. Hoisington);
  • "Judgement Day" (Hughes)[35]
  • "Some o' These Days" [36]
  • about 90 other works

Instrumental Chamber Music

  • Andante con espressione (1929)[37]
  • String Quartet (No. 1) in G major (1929)[38]
  • Fantasie [No. 1] in G Minor for Violin and Piano (1933)[39]
  • String Quartet (No. 2) in A minor (published in 1935)[40][41]
  • Fantasy [No. 2] in F-sharp Minor for Violin and Piano (1940)[42]
  • Piano Quintet in E minor (1936)
  • Piano Quintet in A minor
  • Five Folksongs in Counterpoint for String Quartet
  • Suite (Octet) for Brasses and Piano (1930)[43]
  • Fantasy [No. 2] in F-sharp Minor for Violin and Piano (1940)[44]
  • Moods, for Flute, Clarinet and Piano (1953)
  • Spring Journey, for 2 violins, viola, cello, double bass and piano
  • Various pieces for violin and piano

Works for piano

  • Tarantella (1926)[45]
  • Impromptu No. 1 (1926)[46]
  • Valsette Mignon (1926)[47]
  • At the Cotton Gin (1927); published by G. Schirmer (New York), 1928
  • Song without Words in G Major (1928 or early 1930s)[48]
  • Meditation ([ca. 1929])[49][50]
  • Fantasie nègre [No. 1] (E minor) (1929, rev. 1931); based on the spiritual "Sinner, please don't let this harvest pass"
  • On a Quiet Lake (June 23, 1929)[51][52]
  • Cotton Dance (Dance of the Cotton Blossoms) (1931)
  • Fantasie nègre No. 2 in G minor (March, 1932)[53][54]
  • Fantasie nègre No. 3 in F minor (March 30, 1932)(inc.)
  • Fantasie nègre No. 4 in B minor (April 5, 1932 - [ca. 1937]) (4 versions)[55][56][57]
  • Piano Sonata in E minor (1932)
  • 3 Little Negro Dances (1933); also arranged for concert band (1939); for two pianos (1949); and for orchestra (before 1951)
  • Tecumseh (published by Carl Fischer, New York, 1935)[58]
  • 3 Sketches for little pianists (1937)
  • Arkansas Jitter (1938)
  • Bayou Dance (1938)
  • Dance of the Cotton Blossoms (1938)
  • Summer Moon (for Memry Midgett)' (April 6, 1938)[59][60]
  • Down a Southern Lane (April 29, 1939)[61][62]
  • Rocking chair (1939)
  • Remembrance (1941 or earlier) (to Mr. Henry S. Sawyer)[63][64]
  • Village Scenes (1942): "Church Spires in Moonlight," "A Shaded Lane," "The Park"[65]
  • Your Hands in Mine (1943) (originally titled Memory Lane)[66][67]
  • Clouds [ca. 1940s][68][69][70]
  • Cotton Dance (Presto) ([ca. 1940s])[71]
  • 2 Fantasies on Folk Tunes (date unknown)
  • In Sentimental Mood (1947)[72][73]
  • Whim Wham (July 6, 1946)[74]
  • Placid Lake (July 17, 1947)[75]
  • Memories of Dixieland (1947); won Holstein Award, 1947
  • Sketches in Sepia (September, 1947)[76][77]
  • Rock-a-bye (1947)
  • [Three Roses]: To a Yellow Rose, To a White Rose,[78] To a Red Rose (1949)[79][80]
  • First Romance(ca. 1940s)[81][82]
  • Waltzing on a Sunbeam (ca. 1950[83]
  • Snapshots (1952): Flame (14 January 1949), Moon behind a Cloud (17 July 1949), Lake Mirror (13 October 1952)[84]
  • Until We Meet (1952)[85]
  • Dances in the Canebrakes (1953); also orchestrated
  • about 70 teaching pieces

Undated:

  • I'm Troubled in My Mind[86]
  • Pieces to a Certain Pair of Newlyweds [only No. 1][87]


Arrangements of spirituals

  • "My soul's been anchored in de Lord", 1v, pf (1937), arr. 1v, orch, arr. chorus, pf;
  • "Nobody knows the trouble I've Seen (Philadelphia: Theodore Presser, 1938);[88]
  • "Some o' These Days," 1v, pf[89]
  • "Were you there when they crucified my Lord?", pf (1942);
  • "I am bound for the kingdom", 1v, pf (1948);
  • "I'm workin' on my building", 1v, pf job at Florida
  • "Heav'n bound soldier", male chorus, 1949 [2 arrs.];

Undated:

  • "Joshua Fit de Battle of Jericho" (ca. 1950)[90]
  • "Peter, Go Ring dem Bells" (undated)[91]
  • Variations on a Folksong (Peter, go ring dem bells)", org (1996);
  • "I couldn't hear nobody pray", SSAATTBB;
  • "Save me, Lord, save me", 1v, pf;
  • "Trouble done come my way", 1v, pf;
  • ?12 other works, 1v, pf
    • MSS of 40 songs in US-PHu; other MSS in private collections; papers and duplicate MSS in U. of Arkansas, Florida

===Works for Organ=== (supplied by Calvert Johnson)

  • Adoration in The Organ Portfolio vol. 15/86 (Dec. 1951), Dayton OH: Lorenz Publishing Co., 34–35.
  • Andante, July 24, 1952
  • Andantino
  • Allegretto
  • Cantilena March 10, 1951
  • Caprice
  • Dainty Lass, by November 19, 1936
  • The Hour Glass [formerly Sandman]. Paired with Retrospection as No. 1
  • Hour of Peace or Hour of Contentment or Gentle Heart, November 16, 1951
  • In Quiet Mood [formerly Evening and then Impromptu]. New York: Galaxy Music Corp, 1951 (dated Aug. 7, 1941)
  • Little Melody
  • Little Pastorale
  • Offertory in The Organ Portfolio vol. 17/130 (1953). Dayton OH: Lorenz Publishing Co., 1953
  • Passacaglia and Fugue, January, 1927
  • A Pleasant Thought, December 10, 1951
  • Prelude and Fantasie, by 1942
  • Retrospection [formerly An Elf on a Moonbeam]. Paired with The Hour Glass as No. 2
  • Steal Away to Jesus, by November 19, 1936
  • Suite No. 1, by April 6, 1942
  • Memory Mist (1949)[92]
  • Tempo moderato [no title], seriously damaged and possibly incomplete]
  • Variations on a Folksong
    • Principal publishers: Fischer, Gamble-Hinged, Handy, McKinley, Presser

Discography

  • Art Songs by American Composers / Yolanda Marcoulescou-Stern. Gasparo Records, 1993.
  • Black Diamonds/ Althea Waites. Cambria Records, 1993.
  • Florence Price: The Oak, Mississippi River Suite, and Symphony No. 3 / Women’s Philharmonic. Koch International Classics, 2001. Reprinted 2008.
  • Lucille Field Sings Songs by American Women Composers. Cambria Records, 2006.
  • Negro Speaks of Rivers / Odekhiren Amaize, David Korevaar. Musician’s Showcase, 2000.
  • Chicago Renaissance Woman: Florence B. Price Organ Works; Calcante CAL 014 1997
  • Florence B. Price: Concerto in One Movement and Symphony in E minor; Albany TROY1295, 2011.
  • Florence B. Price: Violin Concertos Nos. 1 (D major - 1939) and 2 (D minor - 1952) / Er-Gene Kahng, Janacek Philharmonic, Ryan Cockerham. Albany TROY1706, 2018.
  • Florence B. Price: Symphonies Nos. 1 (E minor - 1932) and 4 (D minor - 1945) / Fort Smith Symphony, John Jeter. Naxos American Classics, 2018.
  • Florence B. Price: Dances in the Canebrakes (Nimble Feet / Tropical Noon / Silk Hat and Walking Cane) / Chicago Sinfonietta, Mei-Ann Chen. Album Project W - Works by Woman Composers. Cedille Records, 2019.
  • Beyond the Traveler: Piano Music by Composers from Arkansas (Sonata in E minor) / Cole Burger, piano. MSR Classics, 2019.

References

  1. ^ a b Florence Price
  2. ^ a b c Slonimsky, N. (ed.), The Concise Edition of Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 8th edn, New York: Schirmer, 1994, p. 791.
  3. ^ Slonimsky (1994) gives 1888.
  4. ^ a b c d Walker-Hill, Helen (1893). Piano Music by Black Women Composers. Darby, Pennsylvania: Greenwood Press. pp. 76–77.
  5. ^ Slonimsky and biography.com agree on 1906.
  6. ^ a b Price, Florence (January 1, 2008) [1932]. Brown, Rae Linda; Shirley, Wayne D. (eds.). Symphonies nos. 1 and 3. A-R Editions. pp. xxxviii–xlv. ISBN 0895796384.
  7. ^ Oteri, Frank J. (January 17, 2012). "Sounds Heard: Florence B. Price—Concerto in One Movement; Symphony in E Minor". NewMusicBox. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
  8. ^ "The Price of Admission: A Musical Biography of Florence Beatrice Price". WQXR-FM. February 6, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
  9. ^ Baranello, Micaela (February 9, 2018). "Welcoming a Black Female Composer Into the Canon. Finally". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  10. ^ Brown, Rae Linda (1993). "The Woman's Symphony Orchestra of Chicago and Florence B. Price's Piano Concerto in One Movement". American Music. 11 (2): 185. JSTOR 3052554.
  11. ^ a b Research Frontiers - Who was Florence Price
  12. ^ See Rae Linda Brown, "Lifting the Veil: The Symphonies of Florence B. Price," in Florence Price: Symphonies Nos. 1 and 3, ed. Rae Linda Brown and Wayne Shirley, Recent Researches in American Music, No. 66 [Middleton, Wisconsin: A-R Editions, 2008], xxxi,
  13. ^ "Florence Price: Symphony No. 3, Mississippi River". Women's Philharmonic Advocacy. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  14. ^ McQuiston, Bob (February 28, 2012). "Classical Lost and Found: Florence Price Rediscovered". NPR. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  15. ^ "Florence Beatrice Smith Price (1887–1953) - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  16. ^ Ross, Alex, "The Rediscovery of Florence Price", The New Yorker, February 5, 2018.
  17. ^ "News - G. Schirmer Acquires Florence Price Catalog"
  18. ^ Michael Cooper, "A Rediscovered African-American Female Composer Gets a Publisher," The New York Times, Nov. 15, 2018
  19. ^ Baranello, Micaela (2018-02-09). "Welcoming a Black Female Composer Into the Canon. Finally". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  20. ^ Symphonies nos. 1 and 3 By Florence Price
  21. ^ "DNAinfo - Bronzeville Pastor Reviving Empty School - September 2013". Archived from the original on 2017-11-18. Retrieved 2019-06-06.
  22. ^ Honors College to Host Performance of Florence Price Violin Concerto and Duos - January 22, 2019
  23. ^ Florence Price
  24. ^ "International Florence Price Festival". The Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center. Archived from the original on 2019-10-31. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
  25. ^ "Festival Celebrates Trailblazing Composer Florence Price". International Florence Price Festival. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
  26. ^ Recorded by the BBC National Orchestra of Wales under conductor Daniel Blendulf; broadcast for International Women's Day on BBC Radio 3's Live in Concert program of March 8, 2015.
  27. ^ Page on musicsalesclassical.com, published by G Schirmer Inc.
  28. ^ Page on the publisher's website, schott-music.com
  29. ^ Article on the blog www.jordanrsmith.com
  30. ^ Florence Beatrice Smith Price Papers Addendum
  31. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  32. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  33. ^ world-premiere recording by Christine Jobson on Nearly Lost: Art Songs by Florence Price (N2A Publishing, 2019).
  34. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  35. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  36. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  37. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  38. ^ Article on burleighsociety.com, 29 November 2018
  39. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  40. ^ Article on arkansaslife.com
  41. ^ new edition, ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  42. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  43. ^ "The Musical Artistry of Florence Price: Hidden Figure No More", by Prof. Linda Holzer
  44. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  45. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  46. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  47. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  48. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  49. ^ ed. John Michael "Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  50. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records FL0018 [2020])
  51. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  52. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Music FL0019 [2020])
  53. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  54. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes, Flipside Music FL0024 [2020])
  55. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  56. ^ Posthumous premiere by Lara Downes at New England Conservatory, November 1, 2019
  57. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Music FL0017 [2020])
  58. ^ List of works on chevalierdesaintgeorges.homestead.com
  59. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  60. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Music FL0019 [2020])
  61. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  62. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Music FL0019 [2020])
  63. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  64. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Music 0018, 2020)
  65. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  66. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  67. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records 0020 [2020])
  68. ^ ed. John Michael "Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  69. ^ premiered by Lara Downes at New England Conservatory, November 1, 2019
  70. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records FL0018 [2020])
  71. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  72. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  73. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records FL0020 [2020])
  74. ^ ed. John Michael "Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  75. ^ ed. John Michael "Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  76. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  77. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records 0018 [2020])
  78. ^ Two separate compositions bear the title To a White Rose and were conceived as part of this set.
  79. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  80. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records FL0020] [2020]): To a Yellow Rose; To a White Rose (Version B); To a Red Rose
  81. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  82. ^ Recorded by Lara Downes (Flipside Records 0020 [2020)(
  83. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  84. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  85. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  86. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  87. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  88. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  89. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  90. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2020)
  91. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)
  92. ^ ed. John Michael Cooper (New York: G. Schirmer, 2019)

Additional sources

  • Ammer, Christine. Unsung: A History of Women in American Music. Portland Oregon, Amadeus Press, 2001
  • Brown, Rae Linda. "Price, Florence Smith". Accessed March 15, 2007.
  • Brown, Linda Rae. "William Grant Still, Florence Price, and William Dawson: Echoes of the Harlem Renaissance." In Samuel A. Floyd, Jr (ed.), Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990, pp. 71–86.
  • Ege, Samantha. "Florence Price and the Politics of Her Existence." Kapralova Society Journal 16, no. 1 (Spring 2018): 1–10.
  • "Florence Beatrice Smith Price", Biography.com. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
  • Perkins, Holly Ellistine. Biographies of Black Composers and Songwriters; A Supplementary Textbook. Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1990.
  • "Price, Florence Beatrice", Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. December 1, 2014.
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas (ed.) (1994), The Concise Edition of Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 8th edn, New York: Schirmer, p. 791.

External links

Further reading

  • Brown, Linda R. (1987). Selected orchestral music of Florence B. Price (1888–1953) in the context of her life and work. Yale University.
  • Green, Mildred Denby (1983). Black women composers : a genesis (1. print. ed.). Boston: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 9780805794502.
  • Phelps, Shirelle; Smith, Jessie C. (1992). Notable Black American women. Detroit: Gale Research.

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Vaughan WilliamsSymphony No. 5

Symphony No. 5 in D major by the English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams was written between 1938 and 1943. In style it represents a shift away from the violent dissonance of his Fourth Symphony, and a return to the gentler style of the earlier Pastoral Symphony.

Many of the musical themes in the Fifth Symphony stem from Vaughan Williams's then-unfinished operatic work, The Pilgrim's Progress. This opera, or "morality" as Vaughan Williams preferred to call it, had been in gestation for decades, and the composer had temporarily abandoned it at the time the symphony was conceived. Despite its origins, the symphony is without programmatic content.

The work was an immediate success at its premiere in 1943, and is frequently performed in concert and on record.

History

Background

In 1935 Vaughan Williams had caused surprise and even shock with his Fourth Symphony,[n 1] a strident and dissonant piece in great contrast with its quiet and contemplative predecessor, A Pastoral Symphony (1922).[2] After this he experienced a temporary writer's block, before he began writing his Fifth Symphony in 1938. He had been working intermittently for more than thirty years on what became his opera (or "Morality") The Pilgrim's Progress.[n 2] Believing that the opera might never be completed he decided to incorporate some of its ideas and themes into other works, most notably the Fifth Symphony.[4]

The symphony was complete enough by the end of 1942 for the composer to prepare a two-piano transcription, which two friends played for him in late January 1943. Any doubts he had about the piece were allayed when he heard the first orchestral run-through on 25 May.[n 3] He found that the symphony said what he meant it to.[6]

Vaughan Williams dedicated the symphony to Jean Sibelius. The musicologist J. P. E. Harper-Scott has called Sibelius "the influence of choice" among British symphonists in the years between the two World Wars, citing Walton's First Symphony, all seven of Bax's and the first five of Havergal Brian.[7] The published ascription reads "Dedicated without permission to Jean Sibelius".[8][n 4] Sir Adrian Boult subsequently secured permission. After listening to a broadcast of the work, Sibelius wrote to him, "I heard Dr. Ralph Vaughan Williams' new Symphony from Stockholm under the excellent leadership of Malcolm Sargent ... This Symphony is a marvellous work ... the dedication made me feel proud and grateful ... I wonder if Dr. Williams has any idea of the pleasure he has given me?"[9]

Composition

The symphony is scored for two flutes (one doubling piccolo), oboe, cor anglais, two clarinets, two bassoons, two French horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani and strings.[10] This is a smaller orchestra than Vaughan Williams used in his four earlier symphonies, with only two horns, no tuba, no harps and no percussion except timpani.[11] The symphony is in the customary four-movement form.[10] The composer provided metronome markings for all four movements, but they are widely regarded as dubious:[12][13] the composer did not observe them when he conducted the work, and he expressed approval of Boult's tempi, which were similar to his own.[14] His musical assistant Roy Douglas has suggested that Vaughan Williams simply miscalculated because he did not possess a metronome.[15]

In addition to the Pilgrim's Progress allusions, the score has echoes of Vaughan Williams's hymn tune "Sine nomine", in the second subject of the first movement and at the end of the fourth movement.[16]

I: Preludio

The first movement, in Frank Howes's analysis (1954), can be seen either as "an elaborate ternary form with coda" or "an exposition of two big groups of themes succeeded without development by a condensed recapitulation".[17] This movement owes something to sonata form, but does not display all its characteristics; the second subject has been derived from the first subject. The movement opens with a pedal C in the bass, answered by a horn call outlining a D major chord in a dotted rhythm, which implies mixolydian D.

 { \new PianoStaff << \new Staff \relative c' { \clef treble \numericTimeSignature \time 4/4 \key g \major \tempo "Moderato" 4 = 80 r2 <fis d>4.\p( <e a,>8 | <fis d>4. <e a,>8 <fis d>2) } \new Staff \relative c { \clef bass \key g \major \numericTimeSignature \time 4/4 <c c,>1~ | <c c,>2. s4 } >> }

The violins use the notes of the pentatonic scale, making the key ambiguous. Wilfrid Mellers believes this is why Vaughan Williams billed the movement as a Preludio, "which suggests an emergent state".[18] The horn call motif fluctuates from major to minor, outlining the tonal ambiguity, moving between the mixolydian and dorian modes, which becomes a characteristic of the movement. The bass's C pedal becomes the tonic when the key changes to either the aeolian or dorian modes. The modality then moves to E, with a new melody in the violins, which, although it does not include a sharpened seventh, outlines E major. The bass, now played pizzicato, supports the melody both melodically and harmonically and the texture incorporates suspensions and passing notes, making the harmony richer. A sudden descent of a semitone, an idea previously used in Vaughan Williams's works Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Job, marks a key change to three flats and also the development section.[19]

The tempo accelerates to allegro for the development.[20] The strings are used to imply the winds of nature, in a similar vein to that of Sibelius. This is punctuated by the brass and woodwind with the falling semitone motif, which gets larger intervallically to a major second and then a minor third. This section is a canon; the polyphony of which Mellers believes shows the randomness of nature. The key shifts down mediants, until it reaches D minor, when the strings imitate Sibelius again, this time using tremolo effects.[21]

For the recapitulation the tempo slows and the dynamics are reduced. The C pedal is reintroduced, but this time in a more melodic fashion. There is more development in the recapitulation. The movement ends in a similar way to the opening, with the horn call, but the key signature of two flats rather than one sharp is used. The bases descend to C via E, leaving the tonality of the movement still in question.[22]

Arnold Whittall argues that "With respect to D Major, the Preludio might be regarded as a clear case of Schoenbergian 'Schwebende Tonalität' ('fluctuating: suspended, not yet decided' tonality)",[23] although Vaughan Williams stated that Schoenberg's music meant nothing to him.[24]

II: Scherzo

Vaughan Williams uses rhythm in the Scherzo to convey different effects. The focus of the movement is centred on the rhythm rather than the ambiguous tonality of the Preludio. Lionel Pike comments that "at times it seems more like a counterpoint of rhythms than of pitches." The movement begins with three dotted minims in a fast 3/4 time (dotted minim = 120),[25] and then minims for four bars, which create hemiolas and then crotchets. This gives the illusion that the music is accelerating, and so the pulse does not settle. When the melodic line begins, the music is divided into five bar phrases. A sense of stability is established when the theme is repeated by the viola and double bass in stable two bar phrases. However the violins enter with phrasing that does not conform to either pattern, thus adding more confusion. Using this rhythmic phrasing, the dorian line played on the violins and the aeolian woodwind line are differentiated rhythmically, as well as tonally. The rhythmical confusion is halted when the wind and strings alternate downward runs antiphonally.[26]

III: Romanza

In the manuscript score Vaughan Williams headed this movement with words taken from Bunyan:

  Upon that place there stood a cross
  And a little below a sepulchre … Then he said
  "He hath given me rest by his sorrow and
  Life by his death"[27][28]

The third and fourth lines were later sung in the opera by Pilgrim.[28] The inscription was omitted from the published score in accordance with the composer's wish that the symphony should be regarded as absolute music.[29] The movement may be considered the spiritual core of the work: Frank Howes calls it "the heart of the symphony"[30] and David Cox calls it "a profound meditation on the three main musical elements presented at the outset".[31] It is not clear why the composer called it "Romanza".[31] Howes comments that with its spiritual, meditative nature there is nothing "romantic" about this movement;[32] Michael Kennedy observes that with Vaughan Williams the term "is always a signal that the music was of special significance to him".[33]

The opening cor anglais solo is taken virtually without change.

 \relative c' { \clef treble \time 3/4 \tempo "Lento" 4 = 66 r4 \times 2/3 { c8\p(-- c-- c-- } c-- d-- | e2) e4( | g4. f8 e[ d] | e d e4) fis( | g f! e8 d | e2)~\> e8\! }

Rising fourths again appear as connecting passages.

IV: Passacaglia

 \relative c { \clef bass \time 3/4 \key d \major \tempo "Moderato" 4 = 120 d\p( b8 a e'4 | d2 cis4) | b( a8 fis e4 | b'2 a4) | g4( fis8 e d4 | e b' a) | b2( cis4) | d }

Although this movement begins with the repetitive bass line characteristic of the passacaglia form, Vaughan Williams eventually abandons it. The triumphant primary melody of the passacaglia is used as Pilgrim's dialogue with Interpreter in the second half of "The House Beautiful" scene, while the fanfare motif recalls of "The Arming of the Pilgrim" in Act II Scene 1. This ushers in a return of the themes from the first movement of the symphony, which are resolved into a quiet valediction played first by the woodwind and then by the upper strings.

Premieres and publication

The Fifth Symphony was premiered on 24 June 1943 at a Prom concert in the Royal Albert Hall, London, by the London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by the composer. Sir Henry Wood, the founder and presiding figure of the Proms, was originally intended to conduct the performance but was not well enough and the composer was persuaded to take the baton.[34] The American premiere was given in Carnegie Hall on 30 November 1944 by the New York Philharmonic under Artur Rodziński.

The score of the symphony was published by Oxford University Press (OUP) in 1946. Vaughan Williams lightly revised the score in 1951, but that revision was not published during his lifetime. It was published in 1961, re-engraved with corrections in 1969, and in 2008 OUP issued a new edition, edited by Peter Horton, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the composer's death.[35][36]

Reception

In a survey of Vaughan Williams's nine symphonies, Elliott Schwartz writes:

When the Symphony in D major was first performed in 1943, it was instantly acclaimed by the listening public. Its success resulted from many factors, most notably the serenity of the work itself as contrasted with the severity of the war then in progress, as well as the allusions to The Pilgrim's Progress.[37]

Hubert Foss comments that public appreciation of the symphony "was more immediate than that of perhaps any other single work by the composer".[38]

The response of music critics was generally enthusiastic. The anonymous reviewer in The Times wrote that the symphony "belongs to that small body of music that, outside of late Beethoven, can properly be described as transcendental … this is music not only of contemplation but of benediction". A grudging note was struck by William Glock, a proponent of avant-garde music, who commented in The Observer that the symphony was "like the work of a distinguished poet who has nothing very new to say, but says it in exquisitely flowing language".[39] Neville Cardus wrote, "The Fifth Symphony contains the most benedictory and consoling music of our time."[40] When the first recording came out in 1944 (see below) The Observer was more welcoming than Glock had been the year before, saying that the Fifth was to the Fourth Symphony as The Tempest is to King Lear … ideal beauty."[41]

After its premiere at a Prom concert in June 1943, the symphony was given in each of the following four seasons, conducted by Boult (1944 and 1947) and Basil Cameron (1945 and 1946). Seventeen further performances were given in subsequent Prom seasons between 1949 and 2012.[42][n 5] In 1994 the composer Anthony Payne wrote of the symphony:

This is music that has no place for the dramatic outbursts of the Fourth and Sixth Symphonies, yet their agonies lie beneath its spiritual radiance, sometimes staining its surface and making its calm breadth one of Vaughan Williams' bravest achievements.[43]

Recordings

The symphony was first recorded within a year of the premiere, under the auspices of the British Council.[41] More than thirty recordings have been issued subsequently.

Conductor Orchestra Venue Date Label and no.
John Barbirolli Hallé Houldsworth Hall, Manchester 17 Feb 1944 HMV 78s C 3388-3392
Serge Koussevitzky Boston Symphony Sanders Theater, Harvard University 4 Mar 1947 Guild GHCD 2324
Ralph Vaughan Williams London Philharmonic Royal Albert Hall, London 3 Sep 1952 SOMM CD 071 [n 6]
Sir Adrian Boult London Philharmonic Kingsway Hall, London 2–4 Dec 1953 Decca LXT 2910
Sir John Barbirolli Philharmonia Kingsway Hall 8–9 May 1962 HMV ASD 508
Sir Adrian Boult London Philharmonic Wembley Town Hall 1–3 Apr 1969 HMV ASD 2538 [n 7]
André Previn London Symphony Kingsway Hall 25 & 28 May 1971 RCA SB 6856 [n 8]
Gennady Rozhdestvensky BBC Symphony Royal Festival Hall, London 22 Oct 1980 Carlton 15656 91252 [n 9]
Sir Alexander Gibson Royal Philharmonic EMI Abbey Road Studios, London 25–26 May 1982 EMI ASD 143441 1 [n 10]
Vernon Handley Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool Sep 1986 EMI CD EMX 9512 [n 11]
Bryden Thomson London Symphony St Jude's Church, Hampstead 7–8 Apr 1987 Chandos CHAN 8554 [n 12]
Yehudi Menuhin Royal Philharmonic All Saints Church, Tooting 30–31 Dec 1987 Virgin VC 7 90733-2 [n 13]
André Previn Royal Philharmonic Walthamstow Assembly Hall 6–7 Jul 1988 Telarc CD 80158 [n 14]
Gennady Rozhdestvensky USSR State Symphony Philharmonia Building, Leningrad 30 Oct 1988 Melodiya CD 10-02170-4
Leonard Slatkin Philharmonia Watford Town Hall 6–8 Apr 1990 RCA RD 60556 [n 15]
Sir Neville Marriner Academy of Saint Martin in the Fields Henry Wood Hall, London May 1990 Collins Classics 12022 [n 16]
Andrew Davis BBC Symphony St Augustine's Church, Kilburn Dec 1992 Teldec 4509-90844-2 [n 17]
Bernard Haitink London Philharmonic Royal Festival Hall 15 Dec 1994 LPO-0072 [n 18]
Bernard Haitink London Philharmonic Abbey Road 17–18 Dec 1994 EMI 7243 5 55487 2 [n 19]
André Previn Orchestra of the Curtis Institute of Music Giandomenico Studios, Collingswood, NJ 8–9 Feb 1995 EMI 55371 [n 20]
Kees Bakels Bournemouth Symphony Poole Arts Centre 7–13 Sep 1996 Naxos 8 550738 [n 21]
Roger Norrington London Philharmonic Watford Colosseum 25–27 Nov 1996 Decca 458 357-2 [n 22]
Richard Hickox London Symphony All Saints, Tooting 28 Oct 1997 Chandos CHAN 9666 [n 23]
Walter Hilgers Brandenburgischen Staatsorchester, Frankfurt (Oder) Konzerthalle Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Frankfurt (Oder) 22 Jun & 26 Aug 2005 Genuin GEN 86064 [n 24]
Robert Spano Atlanta Symphony Woodruff Arts Center, Atlanta 25 Sep–3 Oct 2006 Telarc CD 80676 [n 25]
Peter Oundjian Toronto Symphony Roy Thomson Hall, Toronto Nov 2008 TSO Live 0311 [n 26]
Martin Yates Bournemouth Symphony Lighthouse, Poole 1 Jul 2011 Dutton Epoch CDLX 7286 [n 27]
Leon Botstein American Symphony Fisher Center, Annandale-on-Hudson 21 Aug 2011 ASO download 203
Sir Mark Elder Hallé Bridgewater Hall, Manchester, 9 Nov 2011 Hallé CD HLL 7533 [n 28]
Carlos Kalmar Oregon Symphony Schnitzer Hall, Portland, Oregon 18–19 Feb 2012 PentaTone PTC 5186 471 [n 29]
Douglas Boyd Musikkollegium Winterthur Stadthaus, Winterthur 21–25 Feb 2012 Sony 8 87254 23112 7 [n 30]
Douglas Bostock Argovia Philharmonic Kultur & Kongresshaus, Aarau 3–5 Nov 2013 Coviello COV 91515 [n 31]
Andrew Manze Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool 21–23 Apr 2017 Onyx 4184 [n 32]

Notes, references and sources

Notes

  1. ^ The composer did not allocate numbers to any of his symphonies before No 8, but the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth have nevertheless generally been referred to by number.[1]
  2. ^ Vaughan Williams had first written music for Bunyan's The Pilgrim’s Progress in 1906 for a dramatisation at Reigate Priory. In 1922 he set a "Pastoral Episode" from the book as his first opera, the one-act The Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains. In 1942–43 he composed incidental music for a BBC Radio adaptation of the book. The culmination of his work on Bunyan's book was The Pilgrim's Progress, premiered in 1951.[3]
  3. ^ There is conflict between the sources about the location of and orchestra for the run-through. Ursula Vaughan Williams says that the orchestra was the London Philharmonic Orchestra and the venue Abbey Road Studios; Michael Kennedy gives the orchestra as the BBC Symphony Orchestra (under Sir Adrian Boult) and the location Bedford, the orchestra's temporary wartime base.[5]
  4. ^ The original ascription was longer: it read "Dedicated without permission and with the sincerest flattery to Jean Sibelius, whose great example is worthy of all imitation".[8]
  5. ^ The conductors for these performances were Sargent, Vaughan Williams, Trevor Harvey, Cameron, Sir John Barbirolli, Boult, Sir Charles Groves, Vernon Handley, Sir Andrew Davis, Sir Roger Norrington, Jerzy Maksymiuk and Andrew Manze.[42]
  6. ^ Coupled with Dona nobis pacem
  7. ^ Coupled with Serenade to Music
  8. ^ Coupled with Overture to The Wasps
  9. ^ Coupled with Sancta civitas
  10. ^ Coupled with Overture to The Wasps
  11. ^ Coupled with Flos campi
  12. ^ Coupled with The Lark Ascending
  13. ^ Coupled with Concerto in C for 2 Pianos and Orchestra
  14. ^ Coupled with Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
  15. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 6
  16. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 6
  17. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 4
  18. ^ Coupled with Sinfonia antartica
  19. ^ Coupled with Norfolk Rhapsody No 1 and The Lark Ascending
  20. ^ Coupled with Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Previn Reflections
  21. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 9
  22. ^ Coupled with A Pastoral Symphony
  23. ^ Coupled with Prelude and Fugue in C minor
  24. ^ Coupled with Sea Songs for Orchestra and Tuba Concerto
  25. ^ Coupled with Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Serenade to Music
  26. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 4
  27. ^ Coupled with music by Christopher Wright
  28. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 8
  29. ^ Coupled with music by Elgar and Britten
  30. ^ Coupled with Concerto in C for 2 Pianos and Orchestra
  31. ^ Coupled with music by Elgar and Holst
  32. ^ Coupled with Symphony No 6

References

  1. ^ Cox, p. 115; and Day, p. 41
  2. ^ Cox, pp. 116–117; and 119–121
  3. ^ Connock, Stephen (2015). Notes to Albion Records CD set ALBCD 023/024
  4. ^ Mellers, p. 124
  5. ^ Ursula Vaughan Williams, pp. 254–254; and Kennedy, Michael (2012). Notes to Hallé CD HLL 7533
  6. ^ Ursula Vaughan Williams, p. 255
  7. ^ Horton, p. 200
  8. ^ a b Pike (2003), pp. 153–154
  9. ^ Moore, pp. 143–144
  10. ^ a b Vaughan Williams: unnumbered introductory page
  11. ^ Day, pp. 154–155; and Howes, p. 43
  12. ^ Adams, Byron. "The stages of revision of Vaughan Williams's Sixth Symphony", The Musical Quarterly, Fall 1989 (subscription required)
  13. ^ Atlas, pp. 24–25
  14. ^ Culshaw, p. 121; Boult, Sir Adrian "Vaughan Williams and his Interpeters", The Musical Times, Octoer 1972, pp. 957–958 (subscription required); and Notes to Somm CD SOMMCD 071 (2007) and Decca CD 00028947860464 (2013)
  15. ^ Douglas, p. 66
  16. ^ Cuming, G. J. "Vaughan Williams's Fifth Symphony", The Musical Times, February 1959, p. 91 (subscription required); and Mellers, p. 109
  17. ^ Howes, p. 43
  18. ^ Mellers, pp. 176–177
  19. ^ Mellers, pp. 177–178
  20. ^ Vaughan Williams, p. 11
  21. ^ Mellers, p. 178
  22. ^ Mellers, p. 179; and Howes, p. 43
  23. ^ Whittall, p. 204
  24. ^ Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "Arnold Schōnberg 1874–1951", Music & Letters, October 1951 p. 322 (subscription required)
  25. ^ Vaughan Williams, p. 30
  26. ^ Pike (1996), p. 168
  27. ^ Bunyan, p. 46
  28. ^ a b Connock, Stephen (1998). Notes to Chandos CD set CHAN 9625
  29. ^ Cox, p. 121
  30. ^ Howes, p. 48
  31. ^ a b Cox, p. 122
  32. ^ Howes, p. x
  33. ^ Kennedy, p. 289
  34. ^ Richards, Denby. "Vaughan Williams: Symphony No. 5 in D Major", Musical Opinion, March 2009, p. 50
  35. ^ Atlas, p. 19
  36. ^ Vaughan Williams, p. 1
  37. ^ Schwartz, p. 89
  38. ^ Foss, p. 150
  39. ^ Glock, William. "Music", The Observer, 18 July 1943, p. 2
  40. ^ Cardus, Neville, "The Measure of Vaughan Williams", The Saturday Review, 31 July 1954, p. 45
  41. ^ a b "On the Record: The Hallé Orchestra", The Observer, 25 June 1944, p. 3
  42. ^ a b "All Performances of Ralph Vaughan Williams: Symphony No. 5 in D major at BBC Proms", BBC. Retrieved 12 April 2020
  43. ^ Payne, Anthony. "Past perfect: Anthony Payne on a recreation of Proms long gone", The Independent, 12 August 1994

Sources

  • Atlas, Allan (Autumn 2011). "On the proportions of the passacaglia (fourth movement) of Vaughan Williams's Fifth Symphony". The Musical Times. 152 (1916): 19–32. JSTOR 23037971. (subscription required)
  • Bunyan, John (1904) [1678]. The Pilgrim's Progress. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 1060352.
  • Cox, David (1967). "Ralph Vaughan Williams". In Robert Simpson (ed.). The Symphony: Elgar to the Present Day. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books. OCLC 221594461.
  • Culshaw, John (1981). Putting the Record Straight. London: Secker and Warburg. ISBN 978-0-436-11802-9.
  • Douglas, Roy (1988). Working with Vaughan Williams. London: The British Library. ISBN 978-0-7123-0148-0.
  • Foss, Hubert (1950). Ralph Vaughan Williams: a study. London: Harrap. OCLC 1106175387.
  • Horton, Julian (2014). "The later symphonies". In Alain Frogley (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Vaughan Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-16290-6.
  • Howes, Frank (1954). The Music of Ralph Vaughan Williams. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 459433504.
  • Kennedy, Michael (2013). "Fluctuations in the response to the music of Ralph Vaughan Williams". In Alain Frogley and Aidan Thomson (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Vaughan Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19768-7.
  • Mellers, Wilfrid (1989). Vaughan Williams and the Vision of Albion. London: Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 0-7126-2117-2.
  • Moore, Jerrold Northrop (1979). Music and Friends – Letters to Adrian Boult. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-10178-6.
  • Pike, Lionel (1996). Frogley, Alain (ed.). Vaughan Williams Studies. Rhythm in the symphonies: a preliminary investigation. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–186. ISBN 978-0-521-08864-0.
  • Pike, Lionel (2003). Vaughan Williams and the Symphony. London: Toccata Press. ISBN 0-907689-54-X.
  • Schwartz, Elliott (1982) [1964]. The Symphonies of Ralph Vaughan Williams. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-76137-9.
  • Vaughan Williams, Ralph (1969) [1946]. Symphony No. 5. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-369415-6.
  • Vaughan Williams, Ursula (1964). RVW: A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-315411-7.
  • Whittall, Arnold (1996). Frogley, Alain (ed.). Vaughan Williams Studies. 'Symphony in D major': models and mutations. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 187–212. ISBN 978-0-521-08864-0.

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