Cancelled: Four Seasons Finale

The Lesher Center has cancelled all performances through May 31.

The Lesher Center for the Arts

1 hour and 50 minutes, with intermission

Message to Patrons

MESSAGE TO PATRONS, 5/1/2020: Following the latest direction from Contra Costa Health Services regarding the extension of the shelter-in-place, the Lesher Center has cancelled performances through May 31, and we regret to announce that the FOUR SEASONS FINALE concerts scheduled for May 23 and 24 are therefore cancelled.

If you have tickets to the FOUR SEASONS FINALE concerts, please look out for communications from the Lesher Center Ticket Office. Your options are outlined below:

  • Donate your tickets and receive a tax deduction for the total ticket value
    • Support the California Symphony and invest in the health and financial security of the orchestra and its ground-breaking music education programs by donating your tickets back to the ticket office, for which you will receive a receipt for your taxes (and our lasting gratitude).
    • Exchange your tickets for the 2020-2021 season
      • Subscribers – receive a voucher for companion tickets for the coming season to treat a friend to a concert.
      • Single ticket buyers – receive a voucher for a concert of your choice in the 2020-2021 season.

Alternatively, you may request a refund on your tickets. Leave a voicemail with the Lesher Center Ticket Office at (925) 943-7469, or you may email your instructions to

The season may have come to an unscheduled end, but work to imagine and plan for what’s next continues. The 2020/21 season was announced last week—SF Classical Voice called it “well worth the price of admission”and we are excited to look ahead to when we can share music together again.


The Program

WalkerLyric for Strings

George Theophilus Walker (June 27, 1922 – August 23, 2018) was an American composer, pianist, and organist,[1] who was the first African American to have won the Pulitzer Prize for Music.[2] He received the Pulitzer for his work Lilacs in 1996.[3]

Walker was married to pianist and scholar Helen Walker-Hill (May 26, 1936 – August 8, 2013) between 1960 and 1975. Walker was the father of two sons, violinist and composer Gregory T.S. Walker and playwright Ian Walker.[4]

Early life

George Theophilus Walker was born in Washington, D.C., on June 27, 1922. His father emigrated from Kingston, Jamaica[5] to the United States, and became a physician after graduating from Temple University School of Medicine.[6] His mother, Rosa King, supervised his first piano lessons when he was five years old. His first teacher was Miss Mary L. Henry. Mrs. Lillian Mitchell Allen, his second piano teacher, held a doctorate in music education.[7] While attending Dunbar High School, George Walker was also a student at Howard University, which hosted his first public recital at the age of 14 in the university's Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel.[8][9]

He was admitted to the Oberlin Conservatory that same year, where he studied piano with David Moyer and organ with Arthur Poister. In 1939, he became the organist for the Graduate School of Theology of Oberlin College. Graduating at 18 from Oberlin College with the highest honors in his Conservatory class, he was admitted to the Curtis Institute of Music to study piano with Rudolf Serkin, chamber music with William Primrose and Gregor Piatigorsky, and composition with Rosario Scalero, teacher of Samuel Barber.[10] Walker graduated from the Curtis Institute with Artist Diplomas in piano and composition in 1945, becoming one of the first black graduates of the music school.[11]


Walker was presented in a debut recital in Manhattan's Town Hall. With this "notable" debut, as it was described by The New York Times, he became the first black instrumentalist to perform there.[12] Over the course of the next five decades, he balanced a career as a concert pianist, teacher, and composer. Two weeks after his New York debut, he performed Rachmaninoff's 3rd Piano Concerto with the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, as the winner of the Philadelphia Youth Auditions.

He was the first black instrumentalist to appear with this orchestra. The following year, he played Brahms' Piano Concerto No. 2 with the Baltimore Symphony, Reginald Stewart conducting, and the 4th Beethoven Concerto with Dean Dixon and his orchestra. In 1950, Walker became the first black instrumentalist to be signed by a major management, the National Concert Artists.[13] In 1954, he toured seven European countries, playing in the major cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, The Hague, Amsterdam, Frankfurt am Main, Lausanne, Berne, Milan and London.[14]

Upon returning to the United States, he taught at Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana, for one year before entering the Doctor of Musical Arts degree program at the University of Rochester's Eastman School of Music in 1955.[15] In 1956, he became the first black recipient of a doctoral degree from that institution as well as the recipient of a second Artist Diploma in piano.[16]

Walker was awarded both a Fulbright Fellowship and a John Hay Whitney Fellowship in 1957. He spent the next two years in Paris studying composition with Nadia Boulanger. In 1959, he embarked upon another international tour, playing concerts in France, Holland and Italy. After a recital in London's Wigmore Hall in 1963 sponsored by Mrs. Zimbalist, he received an honorary membership in the Frederic Chopin Society there.[17]

Walker's academic career continued in 1960 with faculty appointments to the Dalcroze School of Music, the New School for Social Research,[18] where he introduced a course in aesthetics; Smith College (1961–68), where he became the first tenured black faculty member, the University of Colorado Boulder (1968–69) as visiting professor, Rutgers University (1969–92), where he served as chairman of the music department for several years, the Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University (1975–78), and the University of Delaware (1975–76), where he was the recipient of the first minority chair established by the University.

He gave master classes in numerous institutions, including the Curtis Institute of Music, the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, the University of Colorado Boulder, Columbia University, Wayne State University, Wellesley College, Temple University, Washington University in St. Louis, Williams College and Montclair State University.[19]

In 1946, Walker composed his String Quartet no. 1. A string orchestra arrangement of the second movement of that work received its world premiere in a radio broadcast that was conducted by pianist . Originally titled "Lament", Walker later changed the title to Lyric for Strings.[20] It has been one of the most frequently performed orchestral works by a living American composer.[21] His subsequent body of work included over 90 works for orchestra, chamber orchestra, piano, strings, voice, organ, clarinet, guitar, brass, woodwinds, and chorus.[22]


As a composer, Walker's music has been influenced by a wide variety of musical styles due to his exposure to the music of Chopin, Brahms, Beethoven, jazz, folk songs, and church hymns.[23] Unwilling to conform to a specific style, Walker drew from his diverse knowledge of previous music to create something which he could call his own.[24] While a work such as Spatials for Piano uses twelve-tone serial techniques,[25] Walker would also write in the style of pop music such as in his song Leaving.[26] According to Mickey Terry, traces of old black spirituals can also be found in his second Sonata for violin and piano.[23] D. Maxine Sims has stated that Walker's piano technique is also reflected in his works, such as his Piano Sonata No. 2. This sonata contains changing meters, syncopation, and bitonal writing which all present great challenges for a performer to overcome.[27]

Awards and recognition

In 1996, Walker became the first black composer to receive the Pulitzer Prize in Music for his work, Lilacs for voice and orchestra, premiered by the Boston Symphony, Seiji Ozawa conducting. Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry proclaimed June 17, 1997, as "George Walker Day" in the nation's capital.[28]

In 1998, he received the Composers Award from the Lancaster Symphony and the letter of Distinction from the American Music Center for "his significant contributions to the field of contemporary American Music".[29] He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1999.[30] The following year, George Walker was inducted into the American Classical Music Hall of Fame in 2000. [Walker Autobiography, p. 164]

Over the next several years, he received the Dorothy Maynor Outstanding Arts Citizen Award (2000), Classical Roots Award from the Detroit Symphony (2001), the A.I. Dupont Award from the Delaware Symphony (2002) the Washington Music Hall of Fame (2002), and the Aaron Copland ASCAP Award (2012). He was the recipient of two Guggenheim Fellowships,[15] two Rockefeller Fellowships,[15] a Fromm Foundation commission, two Koussevitsky Awards, and an American Academy of Arts and Letters Award,[31] as well as honorary doctorate degrees from Lafayette College (1982), Oberlin College (1983), Bloomfield College (1996), Montclair State University(1997), Curtis Institute of Music (1997), Spelman College (2001), and the Eastman School of Music where he gave the Commencement Address (2012).[32]

His autobiography, Reminiscences of an American Composer and Pianist, was released in 2009 by Scarecrow Press.[33]

Walker died on August 23, 2018, in Montclair, New Jersey, at the age of 96.[34]

Major compositions

Walker's oeuvre includes the following works:[citation needed]

  • A Red, Red Rose for Voice and Piano
  • Abu for Narrator and Chamber Ensembles (Network for New Music commission)
  • Address for Orchestra
  • An Eastman Overture (Eastman School of Music commission)
  • Antifonys for Chamber Orchestra
  • Bleu for Unaccompanied Violin
  • Cantata for Soprano, Tenor, Boys Choir, and Chamber Orchestra (Boys Choir of Harlem commission)
  • Canvas for Wind Ensemble and Narrator (College Band Directors National Association commission)
  • Cello Concerto (New York Philharmonic commission)
  • Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (National Endowment for the Arts Commission)
  • Concerto for Trombone and Orchestra (1957)
  • Concerto for Violin and Orchestra
  • Da Camera (Musica Reginae commission)
  • Dialogus for Cello and Orchestra (Cleveland Orchestra commission)
  • Emily Dickinson Songs
  • Five Fancies for Clarinet and Piano Four Hands (David Ensemble commission)
  • Foils for Orchestra (Hommage a Saint George) (Eastman School of Music commission)
  • Folk Songs for Orchestra
  • Guido's Hand (Xerox commission)
  • Hommage to Saint George (Eastman School of Music commission)
  • Hoopla: A Touch of Glee
  • Icarus In Orbit
  • In Praise of Folly
  • Lilacs for Voice and Orchestra
  • Lyric for Strings
  • Mass for Soloists, Chorus, and Orchestra (National Endowment for the Arts commission)
  • Modus (Cygnus Ensemble commission)
  • Movements for Cello and Orchestra
  • Music for 3
  • Music for Brass (Sacred and Profane)
  • Music for Two Pianos
  • Nine Songs for Voice and Piano
  • Orpheus for Narrator and Chamber Orchestra
  • Overture: In Praise of Folly
  • Pageant and Proclamation (New Jersey Symphony commission)
  • Perimeters for Clarinet and Piano
  • Piano Sonata No. 1
  • Piano Sonata No. 2
  • Piano Sonata No. 3
  • Piano Sonata No. 4
  • Piano Sonata No. 5
  • Poem for Soprano and Chamber Ensemble (National Endowment for the Arts commission)
  • Poeme for Violin and Orchestra (Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra premiere)
  • Psalms for Chorus
  • Serenata for Chamber Orchestra (Michigan Chamber Orchestra commission)
  • Sinfonia No. 1 (Fromm Foundation commission)
  • Sinfonia No. 2 (Koussevitsky commission)
  • Sinfonia No. 3
  • Sinfonia No. 4
  • Sinfonia No. 5 "Visions" (two versions, one with voices and one without)
  • Sonata for Cello and Piano
  • Sonata for Two Pianos
  • Sonata for Viola and Piano
  • Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1
  • Spatials for Piano
  • Spektra for Piano
  • Spires for Organ
  • String Quartet No. 1
  • String Quartet No. 2
  • Tangents for Chamber Orchestra (Columbus Pro Musica Chamber Orchestra commission)
  • Three Pieces for Organ
  • Two Pieces for Organ
  • Variations for Orchestra
  • Violin and Piano Sonata No. 2
  • Windset for Woodwind Quintet


  1. ^ Terry, Mickey (Autumn 2000). "An Interview with George Walker". The Musical Quarterly. 84 (3): 377. doi:10.1093/mq/84.3.372. JSTOR 742584.
  2. ^ "George Walker: the great American composer you've never heard of". The Guardian. August 27, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  3. ^ De Lerma, Dominique-Rene. "African Heritage Symphonic Series". Liner note essay. Cedille Records CDR061.
  4. ^ Walker, George (2009), Reminiscences of an American Composer and Pianist, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 978-0810869400, p. 153.
  5. ^ "Walker, George Theophilus (1922– ) – The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  6. ^ Walker (2009), Reminiscences, p. 2.
  7. ^ Walker (2009), Reminiscences, p. 13.
  8. ^ WETA. "George Walker, Trailblazing American Composer, Dies at 96". WETA. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  9. ^ Flandreau, Suzanne (June 2010). "Reminiscences of an American Composer and Pianist by George Walker". Notes. 66: 758. doi:10.1353/not.0.0336. JSTOR 40856228. S2CID 191338496.
  10. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes". Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  11. ^ "Curtis Institute of Music : Timeline". October 17, 1999. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  12. ^ Valdes, Lesley, "Yes, He's A Great Composer For George Walker, 1996 Pulitzer Prize Winner For Music And Dean Of Black Composers, That's Not Enough. He Wants His Prowess As A Pianist To Be Appreciated, Too," Philadelphia Inquirer, October 31, 1996.
  13. ^ Mickey Thomas Terry, Ingrid Monson and George Walker, The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 84, No. 3 (Autumn 2000), pp. 372–88.
  14. ^ "Composer George Walker | PBS NewsHour". PBS. April 10, 1996. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  15. ^ a b c Plaskin, Glenn, "A Composer Who Backed into the Business", The New York Times, January 10, 1982.
  16. ^ Koskoff, Ellen, Music Cultures in the United States: An Introduction, Routledge, 2004, p. 320.
  17. ^ Walker (2009), Reminiscences, p. 105.
  18. ^ Butterworth, Neil, Dictionary of American Classical Composers, Routledge 2004, p. 483
  19. ^ Siberz, Heidi. "George Theophilus Walker: February's Contemporary Composer". Indiana Public Media. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  20. ^ "George Walker: Concise and Precise". Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  21. ^ "High Quality Classical Music Streaming | Hi-Res and CD Quality Online Streaming Subscription at ClassicsOnline". Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  22. ^ An Online Reference Guide to African American History (2011).
  23. ^ a b Terry, Mickey (Autumn 2000). "An Interview with George Walker". The Musical Quarterly. 84 (3): 381. doi:10.1093/mq/84.3.372. JSTOR 742584.
  24. ^ Edwards, Amber (1991). "George Walker". Retrieved November 6, 2018 – via Vimeo.
  25. ^ Flandreau, Suzanne (June 2010). "Review of: Reminiscences of an American Composer and Pianist by George Walker". Notes. 66: 759. JSTOR 40856228.
  26. ^ Terry, Mickey (Autumn 2000). "An Interview with George Walker". The Musical Quarterly. 84 (3): 383. doi:10.1093/mq/84.3.372. JSTOR 742584.
  27. ^ Sims, D. (Spring 1976). "An Analysis and Comparison of Piano Sonatas by George Walker and Howard Swanson". The Black Perspective in Music. 4 (1): 70–81. doi:10.2307/1214404. JSTOR 1214404.
  28. ^ "George Walker: Prominent Composer & Washingtonian Grew Up on Sherman Avenue". Park View, D.C. December 24, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  29. ^ "Historical List of American Music Center Award Recipients". May 7, 2003. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  30. ^ "American Academy of Arts and Letters – Current Members". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  31. ^ "American Academy of Arts and Letters – Awards Search". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  32. ^ "Commencement 2012 :: University of Rochester". Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  33. ^ George Walker. "Reminiscences of an American Composer and Pianist, By George Walker, 9780810869400". Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  34. ^ "George Walker, Trailblazing American Composer, Dies At 96", NPR.

External links


PärtFratres (Brothers)

Fratres (Brothers) is a composition by the Estonian composer Arvo Pärt exemplifying his tintinnabuli style of composition.[1] It is three-part music, written in 1977, without fixed instrumentation and has been described as a “mesmerising set of variations on a six-bar theme combining frantic activity and sublime stillness that encapsulates Pärt’s observation that ‘the instant and eternity are struggling within us’.”[2]


Structurally, Fratres consists of a set of nine chord sequences, separated by a recurring percussion motif (the so-called "refuge"). The chord sequences themselves follow a pattern, and while the progressing chords explore a rich harmonic space, they have been generated by means of a simple formula.[3]

Fratres is driven by three main voices. The low and high voice are each restricted to playing notes from the D harmonic minor scale (D, E, F, G, A, Bb, C#); the middle voice is restricted to the notes of the A minor triad (A, C, E). The entire piece is accompanied by drones in A and E, which are primarily heard in the refuge between each sequence.

The chords are created by the movement of the three voices: the low voice starts at C#; the high voice starts at E. Both the low and high voices are moved up or down the D harmonic minor scale at the same time, with the direction of the movement depending on the position within the sequence. The middle voice starts at A and plays a different pattern (A, E, E, C, C, C, C, A, A, E, E, C, C, A). The generated chords create harmonic ambiguity, since both C# and C are present, yielding an A major or A minor feel.

In film

The composition has been used for many films and documentaries. Notable usages include:


The piece is often performed by violin and piano, but is also familiar in versions for larger forces such as a chamber orchestra. Performance by early music specialists has also been endorsed.[4]

All existing versions so far are composed as follows:[citation needed]

  • Versions of the original music in three voices
  1. chamber orchestra (1977)
  2. four, eight or twelve cellos (1982)
  3. string quartet (1989)
  4. octet of winds and percussion (1990)
  5. string and percussion orchestra (1991)
  6. band of metal instruments (2004)
  7. three recorders, percussions and cello or viola da gamba (2009)
  • Versions of music in three voices with individual variations
  1. violin and piano (1980)
  2. cello and piano (1989)
  3. violin, string orchestra and percussion (1992)
  4. trombone, string orchestra and percussion (1993)
  5. cello, string orchestra and percussion (1995)
  6. guitar, string orchestra and percussion (2000)
  7. violet and piano (2003)
  8. four percussionists (2006)
  9. viola, string orchestra and percussion (2008)
  10. saxophone quartet (2010)

In other compositions

Jazz pianist Aaron Parks incorporated elements of Fratres into his composition "Harvesting Dance," heard on his album Invisible Cinema and on Terence Blanchard's album Flow.[5]


  1. ^ Zivanovic, Rade (2012). "Arvo Part's Fratres and his Tintinnabuli Technique". hdl:11250/138506. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ Arvo Pärt, Sinfini Music website
  3. ^ Linus Åkesson (2007-12-03). "Fratres". Retrieved 2007-12-03.
  4. ^ "Fratres (concert)". Arvo Part Centre. Retrieved 2020-05-08.
  5. ^ Frank J. Oteri (2014). "Aaron Parks: Make Me Believe A Melody". Retrieved 2014-06-17.

External links


Reich Duet for Two Violins and Strings

Steve Reich in 2006

Stephen Michael Reich (/rʃ/ RYSH;[1][2] born October 3, 1936) is an American composer known for his contribution to the development of minimal music in the mid to late 1960s.[3][4][5]

Reich's work is marked by its use of repetitive figures, slow harmonic rhythm, and canons. His innovations include using tape loops to create phasing patterns, as on the early compositions It's Gonna Rain (1965) and Come Out (1966), and the use of simple, audible processes, as on Pendulum Music (1968) and Four Organs (1970). The 1978 recording Music for 18 Musicians would help entrench minimalism as a movement.[6] Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage, notably Different Trains (1988).

Reich's style of composition has influenced many contemporary composers and groups, especially in the US. Writing in The Guardian, music critic Andrew Clements suggested that Reich is one of "a handful of living composers who can legitimately claim to have altered the direction of musical history".[7]

Early life

Reich was born in New York City to the Broadway lyricist June Sillman and Leonard Reich. When he was one year old, his parents divorced, and Reich divided his time between New York and California. He is the half-brother of writer Jonathan Carroll.[8] He was given piano lessons as a child and describes growing up with the "middle-class favorites", having no exposure to music written before 1750 or after 1900. At the age of 14 he began to study music in earnest, after hearing music from the Baroque period and earlier, as well as music of the 20th century.[9] Reich studied drums with Roland Kohloff in order to play jazz. While attending Cornell University, he minored in music and graduated in 1957 with a B.A. in Philosophy.[10] Reich's B.A. thesis was on Ludwig Wittgenstein;[11][citation needed] later he would set texts by that philosopher to music in Proverb (1995) and You Are (variations) (2006).

For a year following graduation, Reich studied composition privately with Hall Overton before he enrolled at Juilliard[12] to work with William Bergsma and Vincent Persichetti (1958–1961). Subsequently, he attended Mills College in Oakland, California, where he studied with Luciano Berio and Darius Milhaud (1961–1963) and earned a master's degree in composition. At Mills, Reich composed Melodica for melodica and tape, which appeared in 1986 on the three-LP release Music from Mills.[13]

Reich worked with the San Francisco Tape Music Center along with Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Morton Subotnick, Phil Lesh and Terry Riley.[14] He was involved with the premiere of Riley's In C and suggested the use of the eighth note pulse, which is now standard in performance of the piece.



Reich's early forays into composition involved experimentation with twelve-tone composition, but he found the rhythmic aspects of the number twelve more interesting than the pitch aspects.[15] Reich also composed film soundtracks for Plastic Haircut (1963), Oh Dem Watermelons (1965), and Thick Pucker (1965), three films by Robert Nelson. The soundtrack of Plastic Haircut, composed in 1963, was a short tape collage, possibly Reich's first. The Watermelons soundtrack used two 19th-century minstrel tunes as its basis, and used repeated phrasing together in a large five-part canon. The music for Thick Pucker arose from street recordings Reich made walking around San Francisco with Nelson, who filmed in black and white 16mm. This film no longer survives. A fourth film from 1965, about 25 minutes long and tentatively entitled "Thick Pucker II", was assembled by Nelson from outtakes of that shoot and more of the raw audio Reich had recorded. Nelson was not happy with the resulting film and never showed it.

Reich was influenced by fellow minimalist Terry Riley, whose work In C combines simple musical patterns, offset in time, to create a slowly shifting, cohesive whole. Reich adopted this approach to compose his first major work, It's Gonna Rain. Composed in 1965, the piece used a fragment of a sermon about the end of the world given by a black Pentecostal street-preacher known as Brother Walter. Reich built on his early tape work, transferring the last three words of the fragment, "it's gonna rain!", to multiple tape loops which gradually move out of phase with one another.

The 13-minute Come Out (1966) uses similarly manipulated recordings of a single spoken line given by Daniel Hamm, one of the falsely accused Harlem Six, who was severely injured by police.[16] The survivor, who had been beaten, punctured a bruise on his own body to convince police about his beating. The spoken line includes the phrase "to let the bruise’s blood come out to show them." Reich rerecorded the fragment "come out to show them" on two channels, which are initially played in unison. They quickly slip out of sync; gradually the discrepancy widens and becomes a reverberation. The two voices then split into four, looped continuously, then eight, and continues splitting until the actual words are unintelligible, leaving the listener with only the speech's rhythmic and tonal patterns.

Melodica (1966) takes the phase looping idea of his previous works and applies it to instrumental music. Steve Reich took a simple melody, which he played on a melodica, then recorded it. He then sets the melody to two separate channels, and slowly moves them out of phase, creating an intricate interlocking melody. This piece is very similar to Come Out in rhythmic structure, and are an example of how one rhythmic process can be realized in different sounds to create two different pieces of music. Reich was inspired to compose this piece from a dream he had on May 22, 1966, and put the piece together in one day. Melodica was the last piece Reich composed solely for tape, and he considers it his transition from tape music to instrumental music.[17]

Reich's first attempt at translating this phasing technique from recorded tape to live performance was the 1967 Piano Phase, for two pianos. In Piano Phase the performers repeat a rapid twelve-note melodic figure, initially in unison. As one player keeps tempo with robotic precision, the other speeds up very slightly until the two parts line up again, but one sixteenth note apart. The second player then resumes the previous tempo. This cycle of speeding up and then locking in continues throughout the piece; the cycle comes full circle three times, the second and third cycles using shorter versions of the initial figure. Violin Phase, also written in 1967, is built on these same lines. Piano Phase and Violin Phase both premiered in a series of concerts given in New York art galleries.

A similar, lesser known example of this so-called process music is Pendulum Music (1968), which consists of the sound of several microphones swinging over the loudspeakers to which they are attached, producing feedback as they do so. "Pendulum Music" has never been recorded by Reich himself, but was introduced to rock audiences by Sonic Youth in the late 1990s.

Reich also tried to create the phasing effect in a piece "that would need no instrument beyond the human body". He found that the idea of phasing was inappropriate for the simple ways he was experimenting to make sound. Instead, he composed Clapping Music (1972), in which the players do not phase in and out with each other, but instead one performer keeps one line of a 12-eighth-note-long (12-quaver-long) phrase and the other performer shifts by one eighth note beat every 12 bars, until both performers are back in unison 144 bars later.[18]

The 1967 prototype piece was not performed although Chris Hughes performed it 27 years later as on his Reich-influenced 1994 album . It introduced the idea of slowing down a recorded sound until many times its original length without changing pitch or timbre, which Reich applied to Four Organs (1970), which deals specifically with augmentation. The piece has maracas playing a fast eighth note pulse, while the four organs stress certain eighth notes using an 11th chord. This work therefore dealt with repetition and subtle rhythmic change. In contrast to Reich's typical cyclical structure, Four Organs is unique among his work in using a linear structure—the superficially similar , also for four organs but without maracas, is (as the name suggests) a cyclical phase piece similar to others composed during the period. Four Organs was performed as part of a Boston Symphony Orchestra program, and was Reich's first composition to be performed in a large traditional setting.


In 1970, Reich embarked on a five-week trip to study music in Ghana, during which he learned from the master drummer Gideon Alorwoyie. Reich also studied Balinese gamelan in Seattle in 1973 and 1974.[19][when?] From his African experience, as well as A. M. Jones's Studies in African Music about the music of the Ewe people, Reich drew inspiration for his 90-minute piece Drumming, which he composed shortly after his return. Composed for a nine-piece percussion ensemble with female voices and piccolo, Drumming marked the beginning of a new stage in his career, for around this time he formed his ensemble, Steve Reich and Musicians, and increasingly concentrated on composition and performance with them. Steve Reich and Musicians, which was to be the sole ensemble to interpret his works for many years, still remains active with many of its original members.[citation needed]

After Drumming, Reich moved on from the "phase shifting" technique that he had pioneered, and began writing more elaborate pieces. He investigated other musical processes such as augmentation (the temporal lengthening of phrases and melodic fragments). It was during this period that he wrote works such as Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973) and Six Pianos (1973).

In 1974, Reich began writing Music for 18 Musicians. This piece involved many new ideas, although it also hearkened back to earlier pieces. It is based on a cycle of eleven chords introduced at the beginning (called "Pulses"), followed by a small section of music based on each chord ("Sections I-XI"), and finally a return to the original cycle ("Pulses"). This was Reich's first attempt at writing for larger ensembles. The increased number of performers resulted in more scope for psychoacoustic effects, which fascinated Reich, and he noted that he would like to "explore this idea further". Reich remarked that this one work contained more harmonic movement in the first five minutes than any other work he had written. Steve Reich and Musicians made the premier recording of this work on ECM Records.

Reich explored these ideas further in his frequently recorded pieces Music for a Large Ensemble (1978) and Octet (1979). In these two works, Reich experimented with "the human breath as the measure of musical duration ... the chords played by the trumpets are written to take one comfortable breath to perform".[20] Human voices are part of the musical palette in Music for a Large Ensemble but the wordless vocal parts simply form part of the texture (as they do in Drumming). With Octet and his first orchestral piece Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards (also 1979), Reich's music showed the influence of Biblical cantillation, which he had studied in Israel since the summer of 1977. After this, the human voice singing a text would play an increasingly important role in Reich's music.

The technique [...] consists of taking pre-existing melodic patterns and stringing them together to form a longer melody in the service of a holy text. If you take away the text, you're left with the idea of putting together small motives to make longer melodies – a technique I had not encountered before.[21]

In 1974 Reich published the book Writings About Music, containing essays on his philosophy, aesthetics, and musical projects written between 1963 and 1974. An updated and much more extensive collection, Writings On Music (1965–2000), was published in 2002.


Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage. Tehillim (1981), Hebrew for psalms, is the first of Reich's works to draw explicitly on his Jewish background. The work is in four parts, and is scored for an ensemble of four women's voices (one high soprano, two lyric sopranos and one alto), piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, two clarinets, six percussion (playing small tuned tambourines without jingles, clapping, maracas, marimba, vibraphone and crotales), two electronic organs, two violins, viola, cello and double bass, with amplified voices, strings, and winds. A setting of texts from Psalms 19:2–5 (19:1–4 in Christian translations), 34:13–15 (34:12–14), 18:26–27 (18:25–26), and 150:4–6, Tehillim is a departure from Reich's other work in its formal structure; the setting of texts several lines long rather than the fragments used in previous works makes melody a substantive element. Use of formal counterpoint and functional harmony also contrasts with the loosely structured minimalist works written previously.

Different Trains (1988), for string quartet and tape, uses recorded speech, as in his earlier works, but this time as a melodic rather than a rhythmic element. In Different Trains, Reich compares and contrasts his childhood memories of his train journeys between New York and California in 1939–1941 with the very different trains being used to transport contemporaneous European children to their deaths under Nazi rule. The Kronos Quartet recording of Different Trains was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition in 1990. The composition was described by Richard Taruskin as "the only adequate musical response—one of the few adequate artistic responses in any medium—to the Holocaust", and he credited the piece with earning Reich a place among the great composers of the 20th century.[22]


In 1993, Reich collaborated with his wife, the video artist Beryl Korot, on an opera, The Cave, which explores the roots of Judaism, Christianity and Islam through the words of Israelis, Palestinians, and Americans, echoed musically by the ensemble. The work, for percussion, voices, and strings, is a musical documentary, named for the Cave of Machpelah in Hebron, where a mosque now stands and Abraham is said to have been buried.

Reich and Korot collaborated on the opera Three Tales, which concerns the Hindenburg disaster, the testing of nuclear weapons on Bikini Atoll, and other more modern concerns, specifically Dolly the sheep, cloning, and the technological singularity.

Reich used sampling techniques for pieces like Three Tales and City Life from 1994. Reich returned to composing purely instrumental works for the concert hall, starting with Triple Quartet in 1998 written for the Kronos Quartet that can either be performed by string quartet and tape, three string quartets or 36-piece string orchestra. According to Reich, the piece is influenced by Bartók's and Alfred Schnittke's string quartets, and Michael Gordon's Yo Shakespeare.[23]


The instrumental series for the concert hall continued with Dance Patterns (2002), Cello Counterpoint (2003), and sequence of works centered around Variations: You Are (Variations) (2004), a work which looks back to the vocal writing of works like Tehillim or The Desert Music, in 2005, for the London Sinfonietta and Daniel Variations (2006).

in 2002 Reich was invited by Walter Fink to the annual Komponistenporträt of the Rheingau Musik Festival, as the 12th composer featured.

In an interview with The Guardian, Reich stated that he continued to follow this direction with his piece Double Sextet (2007), which was commissioned by eighth blackbird, an American ensemble consisting of the instrumental quintet (flute, clarinet, violin or viola, cello and piano) of Schoenberg's piece Pierrot Lunaire (1912) plus percussion. Reich states that he was thinking about Stravinsky's Agon (1957) as a model for the instrumental writing.[citation needed]

December 2010 Nonesuch Records and Indaba Music held a community remix contest in which over 250 submissions were received, and Steve Reich and Christian Carey judged the finals. Reich spoke in a related BBC interview that once he composed a piece he would not alter it again himself; "When it's done, it's done," he said. On the other hand, he acknowledged that remixes have an old tradition e.g. famous religious music pieces where melodies were further developed into new songs.[24]


Reich premiered a piece, WTC 9/11, written for String Quartet and Tape (a similar instrumentation to that of Different Trains) in March 2011. It was performed by the Kronos Quartet, at Duke University, North Carolina, US.[25]

On March 5, 2013, the London Sinfonietta, conducted by Brad Lubman, at the Royal Festival Hall in London gave the world premiere of Radio Rewrite for ensemble with 11 players, inspired by the music of Radiohead. The programme also included Double Sextet for ensemble with 12 players, Clapping Music, for two people and four hands featuring Reich himself alongside percussionist Colin Currie, Electric Counterpoint, with electric guitar by Mats Bergström accompanied by a layered soundtrack, as well as two of Reich's small ensemble pieces, one for acoustic instruments, the other for electric instruments and tape.[26]

Music for Ensemble and Orchestra was premiered on November 4, 2018 by the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Susanna Mälkki at Walt Disney Concert Hall, marking Reich's return to writing for orchestra after an interval of more than thirty years.[27][28]


In 2005, Reich was awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal.[29][30]

Reich was awarded with the Praemium Imperiale Award in Music in October 2006.[31]

On January 25, 2007, Reich was named 2007 recipient of the Polar Music Prize with jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins.[32]

On April 20, 2009, Reich was awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Music, recognizing Double Sextet, first performed in Richmond March 26, 2008. The citation called it "a major work that displays an ability to channel an initial burst of energy into a large-scale musical event, built with masterful control and consistently intriguing to the ear".[33][34]

In May 2011 Steve Reich received an honorary doctorate from the New England Conservatory of Music.[35]

In 2012, Steve Reich received the Gold Medal in Music by the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[36]

In 2013 Reich received the US$400,000 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in contemporary music for bringing a new conception of music, based on the use of realist elements from the realm of daily life and others drawn from the traditional music of Africa and Asia.[37]

In September 2014, Reich was awarded the "Leone d'Oro" (Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement in Music) from the Venice Biennale.[38]

In March 2016, Reich was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the Royal College of Music in London.[39]


The American composer and critic Kyle Gann has said that Reich "may ... be considered, by general acclamation, America's greatest living composer".[40] Reich's style of composition has influenced many other composers and musical groups, including John Adams, the progressive rock band King Crimson, the new-age guitarist Michael Hedges, the art-pop and electronic musician Brian Eno, the experimental art/music group The Residents, the electronic group Underworld, the composers associated with the Bang on a Can festival (including David Lang, Michael Gordon, and Julia Wolfe), and numerous indie rock musicians including songwriters Sufjan Stevens[41][42] and Matthew Healy of the 1975,[43] and instrumental ensembles Tortoise,[44][45][46] The Mercury Program,[47] and Godspeed You! Black Emperor (who titled an unreleased song "Steve Reich").[48]

John Adams commented, "He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride."[49] He has also influenced visual artists such as Bruce Nauman, and many notable choreographers have made dances to his music, Eliot Feld, Jiří Kylián, Douglas Lee and Jerome Robbins among others; he has expressed particular admiration of Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker's work set to his pieces.

In featuring a sample of Reich's Electric Counterpoint (1987) the British ambient techno act the Orb exposed a new generation of listeners to the composer's music with its 1990 production Little Fluffy Clouds.[50] In 1999 the album Reich Remixed featured "re-mixes" of a number of Reich's works by various electronic dance-music producers, such as DJ Spooky, Kurtis Mantronik, Ken Ishii, and Coldcut among others.[50][51]

Reich's Cello Counterpoint (2003) was the inspiration for a series of commissions for solo cello with pre-recorded cellos made by in 2017 including new works by and Alex Weiser.[52]

Reich often cites Pérotin, J. S. Bach, Debussy, Bartók, and Stravinsky as composers whom he admires and who greatly influenced him when he was young.[53] Jazz is a major part of the formation of Reich's musical style, and two of the earliest influences on his work were vocalists Ella Fitzgerald and Alfred Deller, whose emphasis on the artistic capabilities of the voice alone with little vibrato or other alteration was an inspiration to his earliest works. John Coltrane's style, which Reich has described as "playing a lot of notes to very few harmonies", also had an impact; of particular interest was the album Africa/Brass, which "was basically a half-an-hour in E."[54][failed verification] Reich's influence from jazz includes its roots, also, from the West African music he studied in his readings and visit to Ghana. Other important influences are Kenny Clarke and Miles Davis, and visual artist friends such as Sol LeWitt and Richard Serra. Reich has also stated that he admires the music of the band Radiohead, which led to his composition Radio Rewrite.[55]



  • Soundtrack for , tape (1963)
  • Music for two or more pianos (1964)
  • Livelihood (1964)
  • It's Gonna Rain, tape (1965)
  • Soundtrack for , tape (1965)
  • Come Out, tape (1966)
  • Melodica, for melodica and tape (1966)
  • Reed Phase, for soprano saxophone or any other reed instrument and tape, or three reed instruments (1966)
  • Piano Phase for two pianos, or two marimbas (1967)
  • Slow Motion Sound concept piece (1967)
  • Violin Phase for violin and tape or four violins (1967)
  • My Name Is for three tape recorders and performers (1967)
  • Pendulum Music for 3 or 4 microphones, amplifiers and loudspeakers (1968) (revised 1973)[56]
  • Pulse Music for phase shifting pulse gate (1969)
  • Four Log Drums for four log drums and phase shifting pulse gate (1969)
  • Four Organs for four electric organs and maracas (1970)
  • Phase Patterns for four electric organs (1970)
  • Drumming for 4 pairs of tuned bongo drums, 3 marimbas, 3 glockenspiels, 2 female voices, whistling and piccolo (1970/1971)
  • Clapping Music for two musicians clapping (1972)
  • Music for Pieces of Wood for five pairs of tuned claves (1973)
  • Six Pianos (1973) – also arranged as Six Marimbas (1986), adapted as Six Marimbas Counterpoint (2010) and Piano Counterpoint (2011) by the others
  • Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973)
  • Music for 18 Musicians (1974–76)
  • Music for a Large Ensemble (1978, rev. 1979)
  • Octet (1979) – withdrawn in favor of the 1983 revision for slightly larger ensemble, Eight Lines
  • Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards for orchestra (1979)
  • Tehillim for voices and ensemble (1981)
  • Vermont Counterpoint for amplified flute and tape (1982)
  • The Desert Music for chorus and orchestra or voices and ensemble (1983, text by William Carlos Williams)
  • Sextet for percussion and keyboards (1984, rev. 1985)
  • New York Counterpoint for amplified clarinet and tape, or 11 clarinets and bass clarinet (1985)
  • Three Movements for orchestra (1986)
  • Electric Counterpoint for electric guitar or amplified acoustic guitar and tape (1987, for Pat Metheny)
  • The Four Sections for orchestra (1987)
  • Different Trains for string quartet and tape (1988)
  • The Cave for four voices, ensemble and video (1993, with Beryl Korot)
  • Duet for two violins and string ensemble (1993, dedicated to Yehudi Menuhin)
  • Nagoya Marimbas for two marimbas (1994)
  • City Life for amplified ensemble (1995)
  • Proverb for voices and ensemble (1995, text by Ludwig Wittgenstein)
  • Triple Quartet for amplified string quartet (with prerecorded tape), or three string quartets, or string orchestra (1998)
  • Know What Is Above You for four women’s voices and 2 tamborims (1999)
  • Three Tales for video projection, five voices and ensemble (1998–2002, with Beryl Korot)
  • Dance Patterns for 2 xylophones, 2 vibraphones and 2 pianos (2002)
  • Cello Counterpoint for amplified cello and multichannel tape (2003)
  • for voices and ensemble (2004)
  • for orchestra (1987/2004)
  • dance piece for three string quartets, four vibraphones, and two pianos (2005)
  • Daniel Variations for four voices and ensemble (2006)
  • Double Sextet for 2 violins, 2 cellos, 2 pianos, 2 vibraphones, 2 clarinets, 2 flutes or ensemble and pre-recorded tape (2007)
  • 2×5 for 2 drum sets, 2 pianos, 4 electric guitars and 2 bass guitars (2008)[57]
  • Mallet Quartet for 2 marimbas and 2 vibraphones or 4 marimbas (or solo percussion and tape) (2009)
  • WTC 9/11 for string quartet and tape (2010)
  • Finishing the Hat for two pianos (2011)
  • Radio Rewrite for ensemble (2012)
  • Quartet for two vibraphones and two pianos (2013)
  • Pulse for winds, strings, piano and electric bass (2015)
  • Runner for large ensemble (2016)
  • For Bob for piano (2017)
  • Music for Ensemble and Orchestra (2018)[58]
  • Reich/Richter for large ensemble (2019)

Selected discography


See also


  1. ^ "Say How? A Pronunciation Guide to Names of Public Figures". National Library Service. May 2006. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  2. ^ "Composer Steve Reich on turning 80, writing live music and finding faith". Retrieved January 25, 2018 – via The Globe and Mail.
  3. ^ Mertens, W. (1983), American Minimal Music, Kahn & Averill, London, (p.11).
  4. ^ Michael Nyman, writing in the preface of Mertens' book refers to the style as "so called minimal music"[vague] (Mertens p.8).
  5. ^ "The term 'minimal music' is generally used to describe a style of music that developed in America in the late 1960s and 1970s; and that was initially connected with the composers La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass." Sitsky, L. (2002), Music of the twentieth-century avant-garde: a biocritical sourcebook,Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. (p.361)
  6. ^ AllMusic
  7. ^ "Radio 3 Programmes – Composer of the Week, Steve Reich (b. 1936), Episode 1". BBC. October 25, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  8. ^ Lightcage. "Jonathan Carroll | Publishers Weekly Interview". Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  9. ^ "Steve Reich – Composer". Famous Composers.
  10. ^ Paul Griffiths, "Reich, Steve [Stephen] (Michael)", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  11. ^ "RA: Steve Reich". Resident Advisor. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  12. ^ "Steve Reich | American composer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  13. ^ Music from Mills at AllMusic
  14. ^ Bernstein, David (2008). The San Francisco Tape Music Center. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24892-2.
  15. ^ Malcolm Ball on Steve Reich Archived September 3, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ James Baldwin (July 11, 1966). "A Report from Occupied Territory". Archived from the original on June 29, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  17. ^ Reich, Steve (2002). Writings on Music, 1965–2000. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-19-511171-0.
  18. ^ Reich, Steve (April 11, 2002). Writings on Music, 1965–2000. ISBN 9780195111712. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  19. ^ "Steve Reich Biography". Steve Reich. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  20. ^ Liner notes for Music for a Large Ensemble
  21. ^ Schwarz, K. Robert. Minimalists, Phaidon Press, 1996, p.84 and p.86.
  22. ^ Taruskin, Richard (August 24, 1997). "A Sturdy Musical Bridge to the 21st Century". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  23. ^ "From New York to Vermont: Conversation with Steve Reich". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  24. ^ "Steve Reich Remix Contest – 2x5 Movement 3". Indaba Music. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  25. ^ "Steve Reich – WTC 9/11". April 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  26. ^ "Radio Rewrite, Double Sextet". 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  27. ^ "Mälkki Conducts Mahler's 5th". Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  28. ^ Barone, Joshua (November 17, 2018). "Steve Reich Talks About His First Orchestral Work in 30 Years". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  29. ^ "MacDowell Medal winners — 1960–2011". The Daily Telegraph. April 13, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
  30. ^ "Steve Reich, 2005 Edward MacDowell Medal Recipient". MacDowell Colony.
  31. ^ Reich, Steve. "Biography". The Steve Reich Website. Steve Reich.
  32. ^ Hans Gefors, "Steve Reich", translated by Neil Betteridge. Stockholm: Polar Music Prize, 2007 (accessed January 26, 2015).
  33. ^ "The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Music". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved October 16, 2011. With short biography and Double Sextet data including Composer's Notes.
  34. ^ "2009 Pulitzer Prizes for Letters, Drama and Music," The New York Times, April 20, 2009.
  35. ^ "Commencement 2011 | New England Conservatory". Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  36. ^ "Steve Reich: Biography". Boosey & Hawkes. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  37. ^ "BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Contemporary Music 2013". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015.
  38. ^ "58th International Festival of Contemporary Music, September 20, 2014". Archived from the original on September 29, 2014.
  39. ^ Imogen Tilden (March 10, 2016), "Royal College of Music honours Reich, Norrington and Jurowski", The Guardian
  40. ^ Gann, Kyle (July 13, 1999). "Grand Old Youngster". The Village Voice. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  41. ^ Wise, Brian (2006). "Steve Reich @ 70 on WNYC". WNYC. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  42. ^ Joana de Belém (November 12, 2006). "O passado e o presente de Steve Reich no Porto". Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on January 15, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  43. ^ "The 1975's Matty Healy in conversation with Steve Reich". The Face. The Face. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  44. ^ Hutlock, Todd (September 1, 2006). "Tortoise – A Lazarus Taxon". Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original on September 17, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  45. ^ Ratliff, Ben (March 23, 1998). "TNT : Tortoise : Review". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  46. ^ "Performers: Tortoise (Illinois)". Guelph Jazz Festival. 2008. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  47. ^ Stratton, Jeff (May 10, 2001). "We Have Liftoff". Broward-Palm Beach New Times. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  48. ^ "sad". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  49. ^ John Adams: "...For him, pulsation and tonality were not just cultural artifacts. They were the lifeblood of the musical experience, natural laws. It was his triumph to find a way to embrace these fundamental principles and still create a music that felt genuine and new. He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride." See for instance the articles section of the "Steve Reich Website". Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  50. ^ a b Emmerson, S. (2007), Music, Electronic Media, and Culture, Ashgate, Adlershot, p.68.
  51. ^ Reich Remixed: album track listing at
  52. ^ da Fonseca-Wollheim, Corinna (June 22, 2017). "Cellist in an Echo Chamber, Echo Chamber". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  53. ^ "Questions from Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker & Answers from". Steve Reich. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  54. ^ "Steve Reich Interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, July 2002". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  55. ^ Petridis, Alexis (February 28, 2013). "Steve Reich on Schoenberg, Coltrane and Radiohead". The Guardian. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
  56. ^ *Reich, Steve (1975). Writings on Music (New ed.). USA: New York University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-8147-7357-5.
  57. ^ "2x5 performed by Anton Glushkin and friends".
  58. ^ "New Steve Reich Work for Orchestra to Premiere in Fall 2018". Boosey & Hawkes. March 2018. Archived from the original on July 17, 2018.

Further reading

External links





VivaldiThe Four Seasons

Antonio Vivaldi (engraving by François Morellon de La Cave, from Michel-Charles Le Cène's edition of Vivaldi's Op. 8, 1725)

The Four Seasons (Italian: Le quattro stagioni) is a group of four violin concerti by Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi, each of which gives musical expression to a season of the year. They were written around 1716–1717 and published in 1725 in Amsterdam, together with eight additional concerti, as Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione (The Contest Between Harmony and Invention).

The Four Seasons is the best known of Vivaldi's works. Though three of the concerti are wholly original, the first, "Spring", borrows patterns from a sinfonia in the first act of Vivaldi's contemporaneous opera Il Giustino. The inspiration for the concertos is not the countryside around Mantua, as initially supposed, where Vivaldi was living at the time, since according to Karl Heller[1] they could have been written as early as 1716–1717, while Vivaldi was engaged with the court of Mantua only in 1718.

They were a revolution in musical conception: in them Vivaldi represented flowing creeks, singing birds (of different species, each specifically characterized), a shepherd and his barking dog, buzzing flies, storms, drunken dancers, hunting parties from both the hunters' and the prey's point of view, frozen landscapes, and warm winter fires.

Unusual for the period, Vivaldi published the concerti with accompanying sonnets (possibly written by the composer himself) that elucidated what it was in the spirit of each season that his music was intended to evoke. The concerti therefore stand as one of the earliest and most detailed examples of what would come to be called program music—in other words, music with a narrative element. Vivaldi took great pains to relate his music to the texts of the poems, translating the poetic lines themselves directly into the music on the page. For example, in the middle section of "Spring", when the goatherd sleeps, his barking dog can be heard in the viola section. The music is elsewhere similarly evocative of other natural sounds. Vivaldi divided each concerto into three movements (fast–slow–fast), and, likewise, each linked sonnet into three sections.


Title page of Vivaldi's Cimento dell'Armonia e dell'Invenzione, which included The Four Seasons

Vivaldi's arrangement is as follows:

  1. Concerto No. 1 in E major, Op. 8, RV 269, "Spring" (La primavera)
    1. Allegro (in E major)
    2. Largo e pianissimo sempre (in C minor)
    3. Allegro pastorale (in E major)
  2. Concerto No. 2 in G minor, Op. 8, RV 315, "Summer" (L'estate)
    1. Allegro non molto (in G minor)
    2. Adagio e pianoPresto e forte (in G minor)
    3. Presto (in G minor)
  3. Concerto No. 3 in F major, Op. 8, RV 293, "Autumn" (L'autunno)
    1. Allegro (in F major)
    2. Adagio molto (in D minor)
    3. Allegro (in F major)
  4. Concerto No. 4 in F minor, Op. 8, RV 297, "Winter" (L'inverno)
    1. Allegro non molto (in F minor)
    2. Largo (in E major)
    3. Allegro (in F minor)

A performance of all four concerti may take about 40–43 minutes. Approximate timings of the individual concerti:[2]

  1. Spring: 10 minutes
  2. Summer: 11 minutes
  3. Autumn: 11 minutes
  4. Winter: 9 minutes

Sonnets and allusions

There is some debate as to whether the four concertos were written to accompany four sonnets or vice versa.[3] Though it is not known who wrote the accompanying sonnets, the theory that Vivaldi wrote them is supported by the fact that each sonnet is broken into three sections, each neatly corresponding to a movement in the concerto. Regardless of the sonnets' authorship, The Four Seasons can be classified as program music, instrumental music intended to evoke something extra-musical,[4] and an art form which Vivaldi was determined to prove sophisticated enough to be taken seriously.[5]

In addition to these sonnets, Vivaldi provided instructions such as "The barking dog" (in the second movement of "Spring"), "Languor caused by the heat" (in the first movement of "Summer"), and "the drunkards have fallen asleep" (in the second movement of "Autumn").

A new translation of the sonnets into English by Armand D'Angour was published online in 2019.

Sonnet text

Sonnet Italian English

Giunt' è la Primavera e festosetti
La Salutan gl' Augei con lieto canto,
E i fonti allo Spirar de' Zeffiretti
Con dolce mormorio Scorrono intanto:
Vengon' coprendo l' aer di nero amanto
E Lampi, e tuoni ad annuntiarla eletti
Indi tacendo questi, gl' Augelletti;
Tornan' di nuovo al lor canoro incanto:

E quindi sul fiorito ameno prato
Al caro mormorio di fronde e piante
Dorme 'l Caprar col fido can' à lato.

Di pastoral Zampogna al suon festante
Danzan Ninfe e Pastor nel tetto amato
Di primavera all' apparir brillante.

Springtime is upon us.
The birds celebrate her return with festive song,
and murmuring streams are
softly caressed by the breezes.
Thunderstorms, those heralds of Spring, roar,
casting their dark mantle over heaven,
Then they die away to silence,
and the birds take up their charming songs once more.

On the flower-strewn meadow, with leafy branches
rustling overhead, the goat-herd sleeps,
his faithful dog beside him.

Led by the festive sound of rustic bagpipes,
nymphs and shepherds lightly dance
beneath the brilliant canopy of spring.


Allegro non molto
Sotto dura Staggion dal Sole accesa
Langue l' huom, langue 'l gregge, ed arde il Pino;
Scioglie il Cucco la Voce, e tosto intesa
Canta la Tortorella e 'l gardelino.
Zeffiro dolce Spira, mà contesa
Muove Borea improviso al Suo vicino;
E piange il Pastorel, perche sospesa
Teme fiera borasca, e 'l suo destino;

Adagio e piano – Presto e forte
Toglie alle membra lasse il Suo riposo
Il timore de' Lampi, e tuoni fieri
E de mosche, e mosconi il Stuol furioso!

Ah, che pur troppo i Suo timor Son veri
Tuona e fulmina il Ciel e grandinoso
Tronca il capo alle Spiche e a' grani alteri.

Allegro non molto
Under a hard season, fired up by the sun
Languishes man, languishes the flock and burns the pine
We hear the cuckoo's voice;
then sweet songs of the turtledove and finch are heard.
Soft breezes stir the air, but threatening
the North Wind sweeps them suddenly aside.
The shepherd trembles,
fearing violent storms and his fate.

Adagio e piano – Presto e forte
The fear of lightning and fierce thunder
Robs his tired limbs of rest
As gnats and flies buzz furiously around.

Alas, his fears were justified
The Heavens thunder and roar and with hail
Cut the head off the wheat and damages the grain.


Celebra il Vilanel con balli e Canti
Del felice raccolto il bel piacere
E del liquor de Bacco accesi tanti
Finiscono col Sonno il lor godere.

Adagio molto
Fà ch' ogn' uno tralasci e balli e canti
L' aria che temperata dà piacere,
E la Staggion ch' invita tanti e tanti
D' un dolcissimo Sonno al bel godere.

cacciator alla nov' alba à caccia
Con corni, Schioppi, e cani escono fuore
Fugge la belva, e Seguono la traccia;
Già Sbigottita, e lassa al gran rumore
De' Schioppi e cani, ferita minaccia
Languida di fuggir, mà oppressa muore.

Celebrates the peasant, with songs and dances,
The pleasure of a bountiful harvest.
And fired up by Bacchus' liquor,
many end their revelry in sleep.

Adagio molto
Everyone is made to forget their cares and to sing and dance
By the air which is tempered with pleasure
And (by) the season that invites so many, many
Out of their sweetest slumber to fine enjoyment

The hunters emerge at the new dawn,
And with horns and dogs and guns depart upon their hunting
The beast flees and they follow its trail;
Terrified and tired of the great noise
Of guns and dogs, the beast, wounded, threatens
Languidly to flee, but harried, dies.


Allegro non molto
Agghiacciato tremar trà nevi algenti
Al Severo Spirar d' orrido Vento,
Correr battendo i piedi ogni momento;
E pel Soverchio gel batter i denti;

Passar al foco i di quieti e contenti
Mentre la pioggia fuor bagna ben cento

Caminar Sopra il giaccio, e à passo lento
Per timor di cader girsene intenti;
Gir forte Sdruzziolar, cader à terra
Di nuove ir Sopra 'l giaccio e correr forte
Sin ch' il giaccio si rompe, e si disserra;
Sentir uscir dalle ferrate porte
Sirocco, Borea, e tutti i Venti in guerra
Quest' é 'l verno, mà tal, che gioja apporte.

Allegro non molto
To tremble from cold in the icy snow,
In the harsh breath of a horrid wind;
To run, stamping one's feet every moment,
Our teeth chattering in the extreme cold

Before the fire to pass peaceful,
Contented days while the rain outside pours down.

We tread the icy path slowly and cautiously,
for fear of tripping and falling.
Then turn abruptly, slip, crash on the ground and,
rising, hasten on across the ice lest it cracks up.
We feel the chill north winds course through the home
despite the locked and bolted doors...
this is winter, which nonetheless
brings its own delights.

Recordings by Wichita State University Chamber Players

The following performances, recorded on 6 February 2000, are by the Wichita State University Chamber Players, an ensemble of the Wichita Symphony Orchestra. The soloist is John Harrison.

Recording history

Bernardino Molinari, who made the first electrical recording of The Four Seasons in 1942.

The date and personnel on the first recording of The Four Seasons are disputed. There is a compact disc of a recording made by the violinist Alfredo Campoli taken from acetates of a French radio broadcast; these are thought to date from early in 1939.[6] The first proper electrical recording was made in 1942 by Bernardino Molinari; though his is a somewhat different interpretation from modern performances, it is clearly recognisable as The Four Seasons. Molinari's recording was made for Cetra, and was issued in Italy and subsequently in the United States on six double-sided 78s, in the 1940s. It was then reissued on long-playing album in 1950, and, later, on compact disc.[7]

The first American recording was made in the final week of 1947 by the violinist Louis Kaufman.[8] The recording was made at Carnegie Hall in advance of a scheduled recording ban effective 1 January 1948.[9] The performers were The Concert Hall Chamber Orchestra under Henry Swoboda, Edith Weiss-Mann (harpsichord) and Edouard Nies-Berger (organ).[10] This recording helped the re-popularisation of Vivaldi's music in the mainstream repertoire of Europe and America following on the work done by Molinari and others in Italy.[9] It won the French Grand Prix du Disque in 1950, was elected to the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002, and was selected the following year for the National Recording Registry in the Library of Congress. Kaufman, intrigued to learn that the four concertos were in fact part of a set of twelve, set about finding a full score and eventually recorded the other eight concertos in Zürich in 1950, making his the first recording of Vivaldi's complete Op. 8.[11]

The ensemble I Musici recorded The Four Seasons several times, the debut recording in 1955 with Felix Ayo; a 1959 recording featuring Ayo again; and subsequent recordings featuring Roberto Michelucci (1969), Pina Carmirelli (1982), Federico Agostini (1990), and Mariana Sîrbu (1995). The 1969 Argo recording by the Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields conducted by Neville Marriner and featuring the soloist Alan Loveday sold over half a million copies; it became the ensemble's first gold record.[12]

I Solisti di Zagreb, under the baton of Antonio Janigro with Jan Tomasow as violin soloist and Anton Heiller on harpsichord, followed in 1957 on the Vanguard label, further reissued under the Philips and other labels. Wilfrid Mellers, an English music critic, musicologist and composer wrote of this performance, "the soloists phrase their lyricism beautifully."[citation needed] John Thornton wrote about this recording, "Here is matchless ensemble playing, topped by Tomasow's secure playing. Janigro reveals his talent for conducting, which competes with his considerable talent for cello playing."[13]

Ivan Supek wrote of this recording:

I will attempt to convey to you how much this performance means to me, and might mean to you, as well. My first encounter with the records took place almost thirty years ago, when “our” Antonio revealed to me the true significance of the piece of another great Antonio, his famous namesake, whose Le Quattro Staggioni I could hardly listen any more because of the "grand", actually too grand, performances usual at that time, let alone enjoy them. What a change it was – a window into a new world; music is fast, precise and true to life, the intonation is correct, the continuo appropriate, and the violin of beautiful sound in fitting correlation with the Zagreb Soloists. The self-assured and fine tone of Jan Tomasow's solo violin relates perfectly with the Soloists; the entire performance is impregnated with the spirit of Janigro's perfectionism, leaving the music and its soul fully exposed. It had been for a long time the only performance I could listen to. Only during [the] last decade some new kids, playing authentic instruments, have offered to me similar pleasure and insights into the music of Antonio Vivaldi and, to my great pleasure, Janigro's performance is no longer the only choice for me. In my opinion, this also shows how Janigro's performance in co-operation with the Zagreb Soloists was far ahead its time, as corroborated by Igor Stravinsky, who claimed that it was the most beautiful performance of Le Quattro Staggioni he had ever heard, a statement which I only recently learned about. No wonder, since such “bareness” and precision of Janigro's interpretation must have appealed to him. It was much later that I discovered the excellence of the recording as well. At that time, the Zagreb Soloists were recording for Vanguard, mostly in Vienna at various locations, and this particular recording was made in 1957 at Rotenturmstrassaal. Recording was produced by Seymour Solomon, chief producer of the entire edition, who would personally come from the USA to oversee every recording to be made by the Zagreb Soloists, whereas the Vanguard branch in Vienna "Amadeo" was in charge of the organisation. (My gratitude to one of the founders of the Zagreb Soloists, Mr. Stjepan Aranjoš, for providing me with some important insights). Janigro was a perfectionist, often rather merciless, not only in matters of music but also in terms of the sound, so he participated directly and intensely in [the] recording process, which was quite uncommon at that time. All that great care, by all participants in the project, is amply reflected in the recording itself, resulting in an airy performance of appropriate spaciousness and extension, with only occasional “congestion” of high tones in forte sections.[14]

Paul Shoemaker wrote about this recording:

Nothing I have heard changes my view that the best Seasons ever was performed by Jan Tomasow and I Solisti di Zagreb and beautifully recorded by Vanguard at the very beginning of the stereo era. If you have almost every other version of the Seasons, you’ll want this one, too. If money and space are no obstacle, it might be worth having.[15]

Nigel Kennedy's 1989 recording of The Four Seasons with the English Chamber Orchestra sold over two million copies, becoming one of the best-selling classical works ever.[16] Gil Shaham and the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra recorded The Four Seasons as well as a music video for the first movement of "Winter" that was featured regularly on The Weather Channel in the mid-1990s.

The World's Encyclopedia of Recorded Music in 1952 cites only two recordings of The Four Seasons – by Molinari and Kaufman. By 2011, approximately 1,000 recorded versions have been made since Campoli's in 1939.[citation needed]

Classical musicians have sought to distinguish their recordings of The Four Seasons, with historically informed performances, and embellishments, to the point of varying the instruments and tempi, or playing notes differently from the listener's expectation (whether specified by the composer or not).[17] It is said that Vivaldi's work presents such opportunities for improvisation.[18]

Derivative works

Derivative works of these concerti include arrangements, transcriptions, covers, remixes, samples, and parodies in music—themes in theater and opera, soundtracks in films (or video games), and choreography in ballet (along with contemporary dance, figure skating, rhythmic gymnastics, synchronized swimming, etc.)—either in their entirety, single movements, or medleys. Antonio Vivaldi appears to have started this trend of adapting music from The Four Seasons, and since then it has expanded into many aspects of the performing arts (as have other instrumental & vocal works by the composer). This contest between harmony and invention (as it were) now involves various genres around the world:

1726 (or 1734)
1727 (or 1730, 1731)
  • Vivaldi based his setting of "Gelido in ogni vena", an aria from Metastasio's Siroe, re di Persia libretto, on the first movement of the "Winter" concerto. Vivaldi's Siroe, containing an aria on this text, premiered in 1727 (music lost). An aria on the "Gelido in ogni vena" text also appeared in his 1730 Argippo (music lost). In 1731, he inserted the extant version of this aria in his Farnace when this opera was restaged in Pavia.[19][20][21]
  • Nicolas Chédeville (France) arranged the concerti (as "Le printemps, ou Les saisons amusantes") for hurdy-gurdy or musette, violin, flute, and continuo.
  • The French composer Michel Corrette composed and published a choral motet, Laudate Dominum de Coelis, subtitled Motet à Grand Chœur arrangé dans le Concerto de Printemps de Vivaldi. The work, for choir and orchestra, consists of the words of Psalm 116 set to the music from the Spring concerto with vocal soloists singing the solo concerto parts.[22]


  • Astor Piazzolla (Argentina) published Estaciones Porteñas, "The Four Seasons of Buenos Aires"; these have been included in "eight seasons" performances, along with Vivaldi's work, by various artists.
  • The New Koto Ensemble (Japan) recorded the concerti on koto instruments.[26]
  • Michael Franks (United States) composed a vocal serenade based on the theme of the Adagio from the "Summer" concerto.[27] This was subsequently covered by WoongSan (Korea) in 2010.[28]
  • Patrick Gleeson (United States) recorded a "computer realization" of the concerti.
  • Thomas Wilbrandt (West Germany) composed and recorded "The Electric V" (later adapted for film), which interprets Vivaldi's work with ambient electronics, vocals, and samples of the original concerti.
  • Roland Petit (France) choreographed a ballet (entitled "Les Quatre Saisons") to an I Musici performance of Vivaldi's work.
  • Arnie Roth (United States) recorded "The Four Seasons Suite", including sonnets (recited by Patrick Stewart). This may not qualify as a derivative work, depending on whether Vivaldi's translated sonnets were meant to be narrated with the music (versus being read in Italian, or silently by the audience).[31]
  • The Baronics (Canada) recorded surf guitar versions of one movement from each of the concerti.[32]
  • French musician Jacques Loussier composed and recorded, with his trio, jazz-swing interpretations of the concerti.
  • Venice Harp Quartet (Italy) recorded arrangements of the concerti for harp ensemble.[36]
  • (Argentina) recorded a tango guitar version of the "Spring" Allegro with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.[37]
  • Jochen Brusch (Germany) & Sven-Ingvart Mikkelsen (Denmark) recorded arrangements of the concerti for violin and organ.[38]
  • Bond (Australia/Britain) recorded two singles based on the "Winter" concerto, with electric strings (violin, cello, viola), vocals, and electronic beats,.[39] They similarly interpreted a movement from each season for Peugeot car advertisements (2009).
  • Ferhan & Ferzan Önder (Turkish twin sisters) recorded a transcription of the concerti for two pianos by Antun Tomislav Šaban.[40]
  • BanYa (South Korea) recorded a dance version of the "Winter" concerto for the Pump it Up video game.
  • Susan Osborn (United States) recorded a new-age vocal serenade based on the "Winter" Largo.[41]
  • The Charades (Finland) recorded the Presto from the "Summer" concerto as "Summer Twist", for surf guitar ensemble.[42]
  • An electronic cover of the same movement was recorded by Takayuki Ishikawa (under the pseudonym dj TAKA) with the title "V" for the rhythm game Beatmania IIDX 5th Style. The song has become one of the most popular in the series, being included in every release since its debut.
  • Red Priest (UK) recorded arrangements of the concerti for recorder.[43]
  • Hayley Westenra (New Zealand) adapted the "Winter" concerto into a song titled "River of Dreams" which is sung in English. It was recorded for her Pure album on July 10.
  • Tafelmusik (Canada) arranged a cross-cultural arts special based on the concerti, involving a Chinese pipa, Indian sarangi and Inuit throat-singing.[44]
  • Mỹ Linh (Vietnamese singer) adapted the "Winter" concerto into a song titled "Mùa Đông" (which means "winter" also) on her album (Chat with Mozart).
  • Dark Moor (Spain) recorded an electric-guitar version of the Allegro non molto movement from the "Winter" concerto; this was later integrated into the Finnish video game Frets on Fire.[45]
  • Celtic Woman (Ireland) recorded the "Winter" Largo with vocals (Italian lyrics).[47] The youngest former member, Chloë Agnew, originally recorded it for her Walking in the Air album which was released in 2002.
  • PercaDu (Israel) performed an arrangement of the Allegro non molto movement from the "Winter" concerto, for marimbas with chamber orchestra.[48]
  • Mauro Bigonzetti (Italy) choreographed a ballet of the concerti for a French-Canadian dance company.[49]
  • Tim Slade (Australia) directed 4, a documentary which follows four classical violinists in their homelands (of Tokyo; Thursday Island, New York; and Lapland), as they relate to Vivaldi's Four Seasons.[50]
  • Seoul Metropolitan Traditional Music Orchestra performed the concerti with arrangement for Korean traditional music (gugak) orchestra by Seong-gi Kim. It was recorded live and released with CD from Synnara Music same year.[51]
  • Sveceny & Dvorak (Czech Republic) produced both an album and stage production of world music based on the concerti.[52]
  • Yves Custeau (Canada) recorded a rock & roll "one-man band" version of the "Spring" Allegro.[53]
  • Daisy Jopling (England/United States) recorded a violin & hip-hop version of the Allegro non molto movement from the "Winter" concerto, and also performs it reggae-style.[54]
  • Innesa Tymochko (Ukraine) performed her crossover version of the Presto from the "Summer" concerto, for violin.[55]
  • Wez Bolton (Isle of Man) recorded a cover version of the Allegro non molto movement from the "Winter" concerto, based on the Japanese video game "Beatmania" remix.[56]
  • Patrick Chan (Canada) performed his long program to a medley of the concerti to win the Canadian Figure Skating Championships.[57]
  • Absynth Against Anguish (Romania) produced an electronic (trance) version of the concerti.[58]
  • Riccardo Arrighini (Italy) recorded the concerti for solo piano, in a jazz style.[59]
  • recorded ambient-jazz interpretations of the concerti.[60]
  • Christian Blind (France) recorded a surf guitar/acid rock version of the Allegro movement from the "Spring" concerto.[61]
  • Sodagreen (Taiwan) launched their "Vivaldi Project" which resulted in a series of pop albums based on the concerti: Spring/Daylight, Summer/Fever, Autumn/Story and Winter/Endless. The project was completed in 2015 with the release of the fourth album.
  • Art Color Ballet (Poland) performed their "4 elements" show to the Presto movement from the "Summer" concerto, arranged by (Kameleon).[62]
  • David Garrett (Germany) recorded a crossover version of Vivaldi's winter (allegro non molto), combining classical violin with modern rock music.[63]
  • Black Smith (Russia) performed the Presto movement from the "Summer" concerto in the style of thrash metal music (likewise, this movement has been covered numerous times by aspiring electric guitar virtuosos, and other crossover musicians).[64]
  • Angels (Greece) performed their crossover version of the same movement, scored for electric strings.[65]
  • Szentpeteri Csilla (Hungary) performed her crossover version of the same movement, scored for piano.[66]
  • Leonel Valbom (Portugal) remixed the Presto movement from the "Summer" concerto with VST Synths.[67]
  • Tim Kliphuis (Netherlands) performed the Allegro from the "Spring" movement as a crossover of world-music styles.[68]
  • Russian violinist Olga Kholodnaya and Argentinian drummer Marino Colina arranged and recorded live in Berlin a version for violin and drum kit.[69][70][71]
  • German-born British composer Max Richter created a postmodern and minimalist recomposition, Recomposed by Max Richter: Vivaldi - The Four Seasons. Working with solo violinist Daniel Hope, Richter discarded around 75 per cent of the original source material; the album is 44 minutes long.[72]
  • Aura (Japan) recorded an a cappella arrangement of the concerti, and had also performed Vivaldi's Spring chorus (from Dorilla in Tempe) on a prior album.[73]
  • Sinfonity (Spain) performed the concerti for "electric-guitar orchestra".[74]
  • Bachod Chirmof (USA) produced a MIDI recording & animation of Vivaldi's winter (movements I & III).[75]
  • Tornado Classic (Russia) performed the Presto movement from the "Summer" concerto, with electric guitar and slap bass.[76]
  • The symphonic rock band Trans-Siberian Orchestra used a portion of the first movement of the "Winter" concerto in their song "Dreams of Fireflies (On A Christmas Night)" on their Dreams of Fireflies EP. The song also uses a portion of Mozart's "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen," which it had used previously.
  • Richard Galliano (France) recorded the concerti for accordion, as well as a few of his opera arias on the instrument.[77]
  • Vito Paternoster (Italy) recorded the concerti in the form of sonatas for cello.[78]
  • Periodic (Germany) produced a megamix of the concerti, which incorporates electronica with samples of a classical recording.[79]
  • Steven Buchanan (USA) produced a tetralogy of "midseasons" (slow movements and corresponding sonnets) from Vivaldi's program music.[80]
  • The Piano Guys (USA) recorded an arrangement for piano and cello, a crossover between the "Winter" concerto and "Let it Go" from the computer-animated film Frozen.[81]
  • Along with the original composition of "Winter" included in Fantasia: Music Evolved, there are also two mixes: the "Alt Rock" mix, and the "Steve Porter" mix.
  • Nihad Hrustanbegovic (The Netherlands) recorded the concerti for solo accordion on Zefir Records.
  • Zozimo Rech and Adrianne Simioni (Brazil) recorded the concerti on electric and acoustic guitar on the Astronomusic label.[82]
  • Lupe Fiasco's songs "Summer", "Fall", "Winter", & "Spring" on his album Tetsuo & Youth reference the concerti.


  1. ^ Heller, Karl (1997). Antonio Vivaldi, The Red Priest of Venice. Portland, Oregon: Amadesu Press. pp. 171. ISBN 978-1-57467-015-8.
  2. ^ Philip, Robert (2018). The Classical Music Lover's Companion to Orchestral Music. Yale University Press. p. 875. ISBN 9780300120691.
  3. ^ Everett, Paul (1996). Vivaldi: The Four Seasons and Other Concertos, Op. 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0521404990.
  4. ^ Christine Lee Gengaro. "Program notes: Four Seasons". Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012.
  5. ^ Andrew Mellor Sinfini Music (2013-03-14). "The secret behind the Four Seasons". Sinfini Music. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  6. ^ Pearl GEMM CD 9151
  7. ^ Two versions are available, one with more extensive sleeve notes giving the political background and history of the work's rediscovery issued by Ermitage ERC CD 12006-2.
  8. ^ Bowling, Lance. "8.110297-98 - VIVALDI: 12 Violin Concertos, Op. 8 / The 4 Seasons (Kaufman) (1947, 1950)". Naxos Records. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  9. ^ a b Jeremy Eichler (2005-02-27). "The Masterpiece That Took 200 Years to Become Timeless". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
  10. ^ Concert Hall Records, CHS. set AR; reissued on Naxos Historical 8.110297-98.
  11. ^ #CHS.CHC 1064 (#Nix.CLP 1061-1/2)
  12. ^ Andrew Clements (2016-10-04). "Neville Marriner - ten of his best recordings". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
  13. ^ Thornton, John (October 1958). "Stereo Disc Reviews" (PDF). HiFi/Stereo Review. 1 (9): 88 – via
  14. ^ Antonio Janigro - WAM
  15. ^ Web(UK), Music on the. "Vivaldi - The Ultimate Four Seasons [PS]: Classical CD Reviews- April 2003 MusicWeb(UK)".
  16. ^ Wright, Steve (23 August 1999). "Not quite Vivaldi: Nigel Kennedy remembers Hendrix". CNN.
  17. ^ Performing Vivaldi, Interview with Nemanja Radulovic, featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel)
  18. ^ Performing Vivaldi, Interview with Aisslinn Nosky, featured on YouTube (producer's channel).
  19. ^ RISM No. 212006277
  20. ^ Spáčilová, Jana (2013). "Brněnská opera Argippo z roku 1733 ve světle nových výzkumů". opus musicum (in Czech). Brno: Opus musicum. 13 (2): 9. ISSN 0862-8505.
  21. ^ Spáčilová, Jana (2014). "Unbekannte Brünner Oratorien Neapolitanischer Komponisten vor 1740". Musicologica Brunensia (in German). Brno: Faculty of Arts of the Masaryk University. 49 (1): 143. doi:10.5817/MB2014-1-9. hdl:11222.digilib/130209. ISSN 1212-0391.
  22. ^ Hopkins, Translated by Bill (1970). Antonio Vivaldi; his life and work. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-520-01629-3.
  23. ^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau Le Printems de Vivaldi arrangé pour une Flute sans accompagnement. Paris: Bignon, 1775.
  24. ^ Le Printemps de Vivaldi at
  25. ^ Moe Koffman "The Four Seasons", GRT or Derby record label, Discogs listing.
  26. ^ New Koto Ensemble "Koto Four Seasons", Discogs listing.
  27. ^ Michael Franks, "Vivaldi's song", "Burchfield Nines" album.
  28. ^ WoongSan, "Vivaldi's Song", album "Close Your Eyes" (Pony Canyon label).
  29. ^ Ben Shedd, "Seasons", listed on IMDB; trailer featured on Vimeo (photagrapher's channel).
  30. ^ Flute "Jean-Pierre Rampal Plays Vivaldi's Four Seasons", Sony Classical (53105), Allmusic listing.
  31. ^ Arnie Roth, "The Compleat Four Seasons", listed on Allmusic.
  32. ^ The Baronics "Get Bach!", on Discogs.
  33. ^ The Great Kat, "Bloody Vivaldi", album.
  34. ^ Vanessa-Mae "Storm", album.
  35. ^ Chinese Baroque Players "Four Seasons", Xien Records (XNC2 44032), Allmusic listing
  36. ^ Venice Harp Quartet "Four Seasons for Four Harps", Fine Classics (4423–2), Allmusic listing.
  37. ^ Primavera Tango "Flamenco Fantasy", on Discogs.
  38. ^ Brusch & Mikkelsen "The Four Seasons", Classico CLASSCD333
  39. ^ Bond: .
  40. ^ Ferhan & Ferzan discography "Vivaldi Reflections" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, EMI classics. Retrieved on 23 June 2013.
  41. ^ Susan Osborn, "Winter/Vivaldi", album "Still Life" (Pony Canyon label).
  42. ^ The Charades, "Vivaldi's Summer Twist", album "As Hot As Cool Can Be" (Power Records).
  43. ^ Red Priest's "Four Seasons" (Dorian 90317), Allmusic listing.
  44. ^ "The Four Seasons Mosaic" DVD is paired with Tafelmusik's L'estro armonico CD, featured on Vimeo (producer's channel).
  45. ^ Frets on Fire "Dark Moor's winter", featured on YouTube (open source gameplay recording).
  46. ^ Accentus "Transcriptions 2", on Discogs.
  47. ^ Celtic Woman: A New Journey, "Vivaldi's Rain".
  48. ^ PercaDu (Tomer Yariv and Adi Morag), "Vivaldi, winter arr for marimbas", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  49. ^ LesGrandsBallets "Les quatre saisons", featured on YouTube (producer's channel).
  50. ^ Tim Slade "4", listed on IMDB.
  51. ^ Information about CD "국악으로 듣는 비발디의 사계 (in Korean)", on Aladin Communication Inc.
  52. ^ Jaroslav Sveceny & Michal Dvorak "Vivaldianno MMVIII", featured on Vimeo (recording artist's channel).
  53. ^ Yves Custeau "Vivaldi Rock Spring", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  54. ^ Daisy Jopling, "Winter (hip hop)", album "Key to the Classics", "Winter (reggae)", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  55. ^ Innesa Tymochko, "Vivaldi's Storm", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  56. ^ Wez Bolton, "Winter (cover version)", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  57. ^ Patrick Chan, "2008 Nationals", featured on YouTube (channel for the skater).
  58. ^ Absynth Against Anguish "The Four Seasons 2.0", creative commons audio.
  59. ^ Riccardo Arrighini, "Le quattro stagioni", album "Vivaldi in Jazz".
  60. ^ Christophe Monniot, "Vivaldi Universel, Saison 5", Cristal Records (CR 149).
  61. ^ BlinDChriS "Vivaldi Dead Springs", creative commons media.
  62. ^ Art Color Ballet "Vivaldi 4 Elements", featured on YouTube (producer's channel).
  63. ^ David Garrett "Vivaldi/Vertigo", album "Rock Symphonies", featured on Vimeo (producer's channel).
  64. ^ Black Smith "Vivaldi Tribute", Against all odds (DVD), featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  65. ^ Angels Ensembles, "Angels Summer", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  66. ^ Szentpeteri Csilla, "Storm – Crossover", featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  67. ^ Leonel Valbom, "Summer Vivaldi", featured on SoundCloud (recording artist's channel).
  68. ^ Tim Kliphuis "Spring – Gypsy Jazz and Celtic version", "Live at Iford Manor" (DVD), featured on YouTube (recording artist's channel).
  69. ^ "Night in Istanbul by Olga Show on Apple Music". iTunes. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  70. ^ "Save the Street Musicians by Olga Show on Apple Music". iTunes. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  71. ^ Marino Colina (2012-10-08), OLGA SHOW - SUMMER - VIVALDI - violin drums bass, retrieved 2017-03-08
  72. ^ Gill, Andy (27 October 2012). "Album: Max Richter, Vivaldi: The Four Seasons, Recomposed By Max Richter (Deutsche Grammophon)". Independent. London. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  73. ^ Aura discography "Le Quattro Stagioni" Archived 2011-11-17 at the Wayback Machine, EPIC Records (ESCL 3932). Retrieved on 3 June 2013.
  74. ^ Sinfonity "The Four Seasons", live in Madrid, featured on Vimeo (recording artist's channel).
  75. ^ Bachod Chirmof, "Midi Animation – Vivaldi", featured on Vimeo (recording artist's channel).
  76. ^ Tornado Classic, "Vivaldi Summer", featured on Vimeo (producer's channel).
  77. ^ Richard Galliano, DG Label "Vivaldi" Archived 2013-07-06 at the Wayback Machine (featured on artist's site).
  78. ^ Vito Paternoster "The Four Seasons in forma di sonata for cello" ("Baryton BRT 006", tracks featured on Magnatune).
  79. ^ The Periodic project & Lennart Wittenhagen "Vier Jahreszeiten", featured on Vimeo (recording artist's channel).
  80. ^ A Vivaldi Compendium "Midseasons", creative commons media, featured on YouTube (producer's channel).
  81. ^ The Piano Guys - "Let it Go (Disney's "Frozen") Vivaldi Winter", featured on YouTube (group's channel).
  82. ^ "The Four Seasons".
  83. ^ "Le quattro stagioni (Vivaldi, Antonio) - IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library: Free Public Domain Sheet Music". Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  84. ^ Carpenter, David Aaron (April 15, 2016). "Vivaldi, Piazzolla, Shor: The 12 Seasons". Warner Classics.

External links


Featured Artists

Music Director, Donato Cabrera

Jennifer Cho, Concertmaster

Alexi Kenney, violin

Show Support By